Located in St. Paul, MN, the Hmong Cultural Center’s Resource Centre is one of the most comprehensive
centralized collections and lending libraries of Hmong-related books, PhD dissertations, indexed articles and
Hmong language literature in the United States. The collection also includes several exhibits of Hmong cultural

The Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9
AM – 6 PM. Most of the items in the Resource Centre may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of one
week. A photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Centre is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite
214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Website:

Hmong Resource Centre Director: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD; Hmong Cultural Center Executive Director: Txong Pao


Recent Resource Centre visitors have included:

Hilde Foss, a visiting graduate student from the University of Oslo (Norway). Ms. Foss is writing her thesis on a
topic pertaining to intergenerational relationships in the Hmong community of St. Paul.

Several students from New Neighbors: The U.S. Hmong Community an anthropology course being offered in the
current semester at Metropolitan State University in St. Paul. Dr. Gale Mason-Chagil is the instructor of this

Mai Na Lee, a PhD Candidate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison writing her dissertation on a topic related
to Hmong political history.

Educational orientation activity sessions related to Hmong-related resources and Hmong history and culture are
available for interested groups. To schedule a group visit, please call the Hmong Cultural Center at 651-917-


The Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural Center is very pleased to announce its Fall 2002 Travel
Grant Recipients. With the dual goals of promoting scholarship in Hmong Studies and facilitating broader
access to its unique collections, the Resource Centre will award travel grants to several Hmong Studies
scholars for the purpose of conducting research using the Resource Centre’s extensive collections of Hmong-
related books, PhD dissertations, MA Theses, academic and newspaper articles as well as Hmong language
literature related to Hmong culture and history. The Hmong Resource Centre Travel Grant program awards
travel grants of $300 to selected students/scholars who reside greater than 500 miles from Saint Paul, MN and
travel grants of $150 to selected students/scholars residing more than 100 miles from St. Paul in the Midwest
region in such states as Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, or Iowa.

Hmong Resource Centre Fall 2002 Travel Grant Recipients include:

Mai Der Vang, University of California, Berkeley. Mai Der Vang is a student working toward earning a Bachelor’s
in English with a Minor in Creative Writing at the University of California, Berkeley. Mai will use the Resource
Centre’s collections to advance her research project related to the historic origins of Hmong cultural practices.

Xia Lor, Northern Illinois University. Xia Lor is an M.A. student studying documentary film in the Communications
Department at Northern Illinois University located in Dekalb, Illinois. Xia will use the Resource Centre’s
collections for a project related to Hmong history. While at the Centre, Xia will research the various historical
accounts of the origins of the Hmong people and investigate the question of why it has been so difficult for
scholars to reach common agreement on the ancient history and beginnings of the Hmong people.

Shoua Yang, Northern Illinois University. Shoua Yang is a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science
at Northern Illinois University in Dekalb, Illinois. Shoua will use the Resource Centre collections to support his
dissertation research, which is focused upon the dynamics of Hmong-American organizations (political,
professional associations, cultural organizations, and social service non-profits). Specifically, Shoua is
comparatively investigating leadership styles, organizational structures, organizational maintenance, and
political strategies of a range of Hmong organizations in the United States.

More info about the recipients is posted at:

The Resource Centre and Hmong Cultural Center congratulate the Fall 2002 Travel Grant recipients.


The Hmong Studies Journal invites article submissions for its Spring 2003 issue.

The Hmong Studies Journal is a unique and established peer-reviewed Internet-based academic publication
devoted to the scholarly discussion of Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the
Hmong experience in the U.S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 5 online
issues since 1996. The Journal’s website is located at:

Hmong Studies-related articles from all disciplinary backgrounds and perspectives are welcome. Works
considered for submission must be original and not previously published elsewhere. Articles for submission
review should be sent on diskette or by e-mail attachment to Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD Director, Hmong Resource
Centre, Hmong Cultural Center, 995 University Avenue, Suite 214, Saint Paul, MN 55104, e-mail: or to Anne Frank, Librarian, Southeast Asian Archive, University of California,
Irvine, The UCI Libraries, P.O. Box 19557, Irvine, CA 92623-9557, e-mail: Submission
Deadline Date: Jan. 15, 2003


The U.S. census bureau recently released data for the Hmong population across the entire United States
(Summary File 2). These are the first national-level figures for the Hmong population made available from the
2002 census. Previously, Hmong origin population, homeownership, and age and gender distribution data for
each of the 50 states had been released but there were no national-level figures available. Previous census-
based national estimates had been derived from adding up the data released for individual states.

The following are national-level 2000 census figures for the enumerated Hmong ethnic origin population across
the entire United States with the figures for the entire United States population in parentheses where relevant:

Total Enumerated Hmong population: 186,310

Gender Distribution in the Hmong Population: 95,063 Males, 91,247 Females - 104.2 Hmong Males Per 100
Females (By contrast, in the U.S. as a whole there are more females than males, the gender imbalance is 96.3
males per 100 females across the entire population of the U.S.)

Median Age of the Hmong population in the U.S.: 16.1 (Compared to 35.3 among the entire population of the
United States).

% of the Hmong Population in the U.S. under 18 Years Old: 56% (Compared to 25.7% of the entire U.S.

% of the Hmong population in the U.S. between 18 and 24 Years Old: 13.0% (Compared to 9.6% among the
entire U.S. population).

% of the Hmong population in the U.S. in the 25-44 age category: 20.4 (Compared to 30.2% of the entire U.S.
population in this demographic group)

% of the Hmong population in the U.S. in the 45 to 64 age category: 7.8 (Compared to 22.0% of the entire U.S.
population in this demographic group)

% of the Hmong population in the U.S. 65 years or over: 2.8 (Compared to 12.4 of the entire U.S. population)

% of U.S. Hmong households residing in owner-occupied units: 44.4(Compared to 68.7% of all U.S. households)

% of U.S. Hmong households residing in renter-occupied units: 55.6(Compared to 31.3% of all U.S. households)

Average Hmong household size per occupied housing unit: 6.27 (Compared to 2.59 among the entire U.S.

It has been announced that detailed socioeconomic and educational data for many ethnic groups including the
Hmong origin population will be released in Summary File 4 on the census website (, on a state
by state basis in the period extending from November 2002 to April 2003. Please feel free to contact Mark
Pfeifer at the Resource Centre for questions related to the access of census data. Hmong population (Summary
File 1) and age and homeownership data (Summary File 2) are available online at http://www.hmongcenter.


The Hmong Cultural Center would like to extend a warm welcome to two new members of its Board of Directors:

Mr. Khue Yang of University Bank in Saint Paul

Dr. Gerald Fry, Professor of International and Intercultural Education and Director of Graduate Studies,
Department of Educational Policy and Administration, University of Minnesota


Books and Dissertations

Cziasahr Neng Yang. (2002). Cultural Capital: Old Hmong Culture in Modern Times. EdD Dissertation,
University of Saint Thomas. This dissertation presents a study of Hmong history and culture through an analysis
of the seminal Hmong funeral song known as “Showing the Way”. The analysis in the work is conceptualized in
reference to several historical and archeological studies of Hmong history and culture in China. The study
provides information about Hmong traditional agricultural practices, civil society, science and philosophy, arts
and music, military history and migration, as these topics are reflected in the verses of the funeral song. The
work makes connections between Hmong cultural knowledge and skills with the current stability and mobility of
the Hmong community in the United States. The volume concludes with suggestions for the application of the
“Showing the Way” song to pedagogy in multicultural education settings.

Mai Xiong. (2002). A descriptive study of Hmong youth gang members in the California Central Valley. EdD
Dissertation, University of the Pacific. This EdD study investigated the perceptions of Hmong youth gang
members and professional workers related to the issues of how Hmong youth become gang members, the
reasons Hmong youth become involved in gangs, the perceived benefits of being a gang member; common
activities involved in gang membership and ways in which Hmong youth have successfully gotten out a gang.
Twenty-eight youth gang members and ten professional workers participated in the study.

Mai Neng Moua, editor. (2002). Bamboo Among the Oaks: Contemporary Writing by Hmong Americans. St.
Paul: Minnesota Historical Society. Newly released anthology of poems, prose, and short plays by Hmong-
American authors.

Jeffrey Alan Washburne (2000). Hmong American Mortgage Acceptance Rates in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis
and St. Paul. MA Thesis, Hamline University. This work uses federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA)
data as well as interviews to investigate Hmong-American mortgage acceptance rates relative to other minority
groups in the Minneapolis-St. Paul region. The author observed significantly higher rates of mortgage
acceptances among Hmong-Americans compared to other major minority group populations in the Twin Cities.
Based on interviews with lenders, banks, and community members the researcher postulates several factors
that may help explain the seeming success many Hmong-American experience relative to other groups in
attaining mortgages.

Academic Articles

Diem N. Nguyen and Mary Beth O’Connell. (2002). Asian and Asian-American College Students’ Awareness of
Osteoporosis. Pharmacotherapy 22(8): 1047-1054. This study conducted in Minnesota quantifies Asian and
Asian-American college students’ knowledge of osteoporosis and preventive health behaviors. The authors
observed that women and U.S. born participants were more likely to change their health behaviors to prevent or
treat osteoporosis. Thirty-eight percent of Hmong participants attributed osteoporosis to fate, chance, or luck
whereas Vietnamese participants were more likely to attribute osteoporosis to diet.

Christian Culas. (2000). Origins of the Hmong in Laos and Siam in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth
Centuries. From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed.
Jean Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 29-50. This article discusses the Hmong migrations from
China to Laos and Thailand, particularly between Luang Phrabang in Laos and Muang Sun (Thailand) in the
19th and early 20th centuries. The author focuses upon various social, political and economic factors which led
some Hmong to make this migration while others adapted to new ways of life and new patterns of agricultural
production in China during this temporal period.

Peter Kundstadter. (2000). Changing Patterns of Economics among Hmong in Northern Thailand: 1960-1990.
From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed. Jean
Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 167-194. This article describes the socioeconomic situation of
Hmong villages in Northern Thailand at the end of the 1980s. It assesses some of the consequences of
increased Thai government control over traditional Hmong economic activities along with the new economic
opportunities for Hmong that were associated with infrastructure development, in particular roads, and new
crops, and farming methods, as well as increased familiarity with the Thai language and lowland Thai society.

Alison Lewis. (2000). The Western Protestant Missionaries and the Miao in Yunnan and Guizhou, Southwest
China. From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed.
Jean Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 79-98. This article uses diaries, letters and other written
documents to describe in some detail the encounters between Hua Miao (Hmong) in Northeast Yunnan and
Northwest Guizhou province of China in the early twentieth century.

Jean Michaud. (2000). Montagnard Domain in the Southeast Asian Massif. From Turbulent Times and Enduring
Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed. Jean Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon
Press. pp. 1-28. This work presents an overview of the demography, geography, history, as well as
socioeconomic conditions and ecological conditions associated with several large minority populations in South-
west China, northern and eastern Burma, northern Thailand, northern and central Vietnam, Laos and eastern
Cambodia. The minority groups discussed include the Hmong, Karen, Tai, Khmu, Lisu, Akha, Yao (Mien), Lahu,
and several others.

John McKinnon and Jean Michaud. (2000). A Historical Panorama of the Montagnards in Northern Vietnam
under French Rule. From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian
Massif, ed. Jean Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 51-78. This article discusses the historical
background, geography, socio-economy and political as well as social status of several minority groups
(Hmong, Tho, Tai, Nung, Mien, Khmu, and Lolo) in Northern Vietnam in the French Colonial period of 1885-

Audio Cassette Tapes

Za Qeej Tu Siav (Qeej Music Songs for the Hmong Funeral). Qeej songs newly compiled on tape by Tougeu
Leepalao, Hmong Cultural Center’s Cultural Specialist.


Need information about the citizenship process, study guides or application forms? Extensive citizenship-related
information is available on the Hmong Cultural Center website at The citizenship section
of the website includes examples of typical citizenship interview questions, as well as 100 sample citizenship
exam questions in both the English and Hmong languages. Up-to-date information is also provided about
eligibility and requirements pertaining to the Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act of 2000.

The Hmong Cultural Center is currently accepting enrollment for its citizenship and functional English classes.
There are openings in the English Language Citizenship Classes offered Monday through Thursday from 10:00
AM to 12 Noon and those held Tuesday through Thursday 1:00-4:00 P.M.

Interested individuals may contact Tong Vang at the Hmong Cultural Center for enrollment information. Phone:

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Citizenship and Functional English Program is a member of the federally and state
funded Saint Paul Community Literacy Consortium (SPCLC). The cultural center’s citizenship program for adult
refugees is also supported by a grant from the New Americans Collaborative of the Wilder Foundation.


The Hmong Cultural Center’s Dance and Qeej Music Troupes performed a few weeks ago at the Roosevelt
Homes’ anniversary event on the east side of St. Paul. The dance troupe is currently preparing to compete at
the Hmong New Year in St. Paul at the end of November. It was also recently announced that the youth
programs have been awarded a grant from the COMPAS/Medtronic Community Arts program. The Hmong
Cultural Center thanks COMPAS and Medtronic for this important support of the center’s popular after-school
youth programming.

Looking for some traditional Hmong culture to enliven your community event this Winter? The Hmong Cultural
Center’s Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) and Traditional Dance troupes are available to perform for a fee.
Persons interested in scheduling performances may call Meng Vang (Qeej) or Yer Lo (Dance) at the cultural