HMONG STUDIES RESOURCE NEWSLETTER November/December 2004
ONLINE PUBLICATION OF THE HMONG RESOURCE CENTER OF THE HMONG CULTURAL CENTER
ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Resource Newsletter provides up-to-date information about new
works in Hmong Studies and Hmong-related research resources. To access back issues of this unique online
publication visit: http://www.hmongcenter.org/hccnewsletter.html
ABOUT THE HMONG RESOURCE CENTER:
The work of the Hmong Resource Center is to provide information to Hmong and non-Hmong for the purpose of
promoting positive race relations, human rights, multicultural education, information about cross-cultural health
and medicine, teacher education, family literacy education and community-based research.
The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9
AM – 6 PM. The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University
Avenue, Suite 214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Online Resource
Center Catalog: www.hmongcenter.org/ or www.hmongcenter.com/ Walk-ins are welcome and there are many
displays to look at that teach about the Hmong people, their history, their culture and their experience in the U.S.
over the past 25 years. Larger group tours and educational sessions may be arranged in advance.
The Hmong Cultural Center and its Resource Center serves as the Hmong representative organization on the
Council of Advisors of Tolerance Minnesota.
RECENT RESOURCE CENTER ACQUISITIONS IN HMONG STUDIES:
Ryan Sherman. (2004). Perceptions and Knowledge that 7th and 8th Grade Hmong Students have of School
Guidance Departments, M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. This study investigates how 7th and 8th
grade Hmong-origin students in Eau Claire, WI perceive their school’s guidance department. The author
discusses the needs of Hmong students, how they use the guidance department in their schools, and how
teachers, administrators, and the community can more effectively meet their needs as they grow into adulthood.
This thesis may also be accessed online at: http://www.uwstout.edu/lib/thesis/2004/2004shermanr.pdf
Catherine Falk. (2004). “Hmong Instructions to the Dead: What the Mouth Organ Qeej Says (Part One).” Asian
Folklore Studies 63:1-29. This new article presents the funeral poems of the Qeej instrument, performed by Mr.
Xeem Thoj, a White Hmong ritual expert and Qeej player who resides in Australia. The text is presented in White
Hmong with English translation. The author also provides an introduction and annotations that describe the qeej’s
role in the Hmong funeral ceremony, compare accounts of the Hmong funeral from different times and places
while also contextualizing the language, imagery, and metaphor used in the text within the Hmong worldview. The
Hmong Resource Center thanks Dr. Catherine Falk of the University of Melbourne for her generous donation of
this important new work to our collections.
Gwendolyn F. Foss, Andjukenda W. Chantal and Simone Hendrickson. (2004). “Maternal Depression and Anxiety
and Infant Development: A Comparison of Foreign-Born and Native-American Mothers.” Public Health Nursing 21
(3):237-246. This article describes a pilot study investigating infant development, maternal depression, and
anxiety in comparison samples of native-born and foreign-born mothers and children from Vietnam, Laos
(Hmong), and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Hao Huang and Bussakorn Sumrongthong. (2004). “Speaking with Spirits: The Hmong Ntoo Xeeb New Year
Ceremony.” Asian Folklore Studies 63:31-55. With the goal of illuminating the specifics of Hmong animist beliefs
as manifested in ceremonial rituals, this article presents a detailed description of the Ntoo Xeeb ceremony as
conducted by elders in Mae Sa Mai village, north of Chiang Mai, Thailand. The Ntoo Xeeb ceremony is a New
Year’s ritual. The ceremony involves showing respect to the four benevolent spirits of the locality and thanking
them for safeguarding the villagers over the past year.
Marc Kaufman. (2004). “American Odyssey.” Smithsonian 35(6): 7 pages. This magazine article provides a
temporal overview of the Hmong-American experience. Hmong life in several different parts of the U.S. is
described and some photos are included . This article may also be viewed online at: http://www.
Jacques Lemoine. (2004). “Hmong/Miao in Asia. Review Article.” Book review of the new volume Hmong/Miao in
Asia, edited by Nicholas Tapp, Jean Michaud, Christian Culas and Gary Yia Lee. The Hmong Resource Center
thanks Dr. Jacques Lemoine of the French National Center of Scientific Research and the Ethnographic Data
Bank for Laos for his generous donation of this manuscript to our collections.
Kalyani Rai. (2004). “Community-Based Participatory Action Research: Offering Hmong Welfare Recipients’
Voices for Dialogue and Change.” In Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Poverty of Policy, editors Philip
Kretsedemas and Ana Aparicio. Westport, Conn: Praeger, pp. 187-203. This article documents the process used
by a group of Hmong welfare recipients residing in Wisconsin, working together with a local W-2 implementing
agency, community-based agency representatives, and a university to develop two community initiatives: a
comprehensive family literacy model and a Southeast Asian day-care service intended to make education, health,
and employment viable alternatives for Hmong families. The overall goal of the projects described was to develop
strategies to more fully engage community voices in the local and national welfare policy dialogue.
Anthony W. Tatman. (2004). “Hmong History, Culture, and Acculturation: Implications for Counseling the Hmong.”
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 32(4): 222-233. This article provides background
information and suggestions for counselors working with Hmong clients. The author posits that to maximize
therapeutic success with Hmong clients, counselors must acknowledge and understand Hmong history, culture,
and acculturation and the value Hmong place on family and community.
Robert T. Teranishi. (2004). “Yellow and Brown: Emerging Asian American Immigrant Populations and Residential
Segregation.” Equity and Excellence in Education 37:255-263. This study is an investigation of how the ethnic
enclaves of Hmong and Vietnamese Americans in California may be conceived as social structures through which
patterns of relationships shape postsecondary education aspirations and outcomes. Vietnamese students were
studied in San Jose and Orange County while Hmong students were studied in Fresno. The author’s results
indicate that Hmong and Vietnamese students in the study confronted a number of challenges related to
language, linguistic discrimination, poverty, and cultural clashes within and between family and school.
Richard C. Yang, Paul K. Mills, and Deborah G. Riordan. (2004). “Cervical Cancer Among Hmong Women in
California, 1988-2000.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27(2): 132-138. This study examines cervical
cancer incidence, mortality, and other tumor characteristics in the Hmong female population of California between
1988 and 2000. Data from the California Cancer Registry were used to calculate annual average incidence,
mortality, and age-specific rates for Hmong women diagnosed in the state with cervical cancer. The authors
suggest that culturally sensitive screening and prevention programs need to be developed to target older Hmong
women using bilingual and bicultural Hmong women health educators.
Sucheng Chan. (2003). “Scarred, yet Undefeated: Hmong and Cambodian Women and Girls in the United
States.” In Asian/Pacific Islander American Women: A Historical Anthology, editors Shirley Hune and Gail
Nomorura. New York: New York University Press, pp. 253-267. This article describes the recent historical as well
as the contemporary experiences of Hmong and Cambodian women and girls in both Southeast Asia and the
RECENT RESOURCE CENTER VISITORS:
Thai Her, a student at Georgia Perimeter College who used our collections to research Hmong Shamanism.
Faculty and staff from Hamline University. The Hamline visitors learned about recent works in Hmong-American
Studies for a multicultural education book of the month club project.
Lee Pao Xiong, of the new Center for Hmong Studies at Concordia University, visited for a tour of our collections.
Nira Ly, a student at Carlton College in Northfield, MN. Ms. Ly used our collections for a project on Hmong
Danielle Grays and Johanne Howe, students from Anoka High School who were studying the Hmong culture for a
Jessica Hanson, a student from the University of Saint Thomas who was studying Hmong history for a term paper.
SEMINAR IN ACCESSING AND USING HMONG CENSUS DATA, DECEMBER 6:
The Hmong Cultural and Resource Center will present a hands-on seminar that will teach attendees how to
access and retrieve Hmong-origin census data from Minnesota and elsewhere in the 2000 census related to
population, age distribution, education, income, poverty rates, job distributions, citizenship status, disability status
and other important variables including gender breakdowns in data. This seminar will also be useful to individuals
who would like to learn how to access census data for other ethnic populations. Attendees will learn about the
specific Hmong-origin and ethnic origin data available from the census and will receive specific instructions and
training through workshop exercises on how to access this data online.
The seminar will be held Monday, December 6 from 4-5:30 PM at the Hmong Resource Center, Hmong Cultural
Center, 995 University Avenue, Suite 214, Saint Paul. To register for this free seminar, contact Mark Pfeifer at the
Hmong Resource Center at 651-917-9937 or email@example.com
HMONG 2000 CENSUS PUBLICATION: DATA AND ANALYSIS IS RELEASED BY HMONG CULTURAL CENTER
AND HMONG NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
WASHINGTON, DC AND SAINT PAUL, MN – Hmong National Development, Inc. (HND), a national nonprofit
organization developing capacity to ensure the full participation of Hmong Americans, in collaboration with the
Hmong Cultural Center in St. Paul, Minnesota has released a new Census data report and analysis on the Hmong
American community. “We are extremely pleased to make this report available. It will be an important tool for the
Hmong American community to reflect on our progress, and to think about our future,” states Pao Lo, HND Board
The report is the first of its kind, combining the work of several Hmong and non-Hmong scholars to interpret
Census data in order to look at specific areas, such as, homeownership, education, and economic status. "Hmong
Cultural Center through our Hmong Resource Center has been very privileged to have had the opportunity to
work as a partner with Hmong National Development and several leading Hmong Studies scholars in the research
and production of this very important publication in Hmong-American Studies. The Hmong Census Report is the
most detailed analytical work that has ever been produced related to the demographics and educational and
socioeconomic status of Hmong-Americans. I believe this publication will be used as a reference work by scholars,
service providers, funders and community members for many years to come,” states Txongpao Lee, Executive
Director, Hmong Cultural Center.
The new census report contains the following articles:
HMONG POPULATION, DEMOGRAPHIC, SOCIOECONOMIC, AND EDUCATIONAL TRENDS IN THE 2000
CENSUS By Mark E. Pfeifer, Ph.D. Hmong Resource Center and Serge Lee, Ph.D. California State University,
HMONG FAMILIES IN AMERICA IN 2000: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE By Zha Blong Xiong, Ph.D. and Arunya
Tuicomepee, University of Minnesota
PROFILE OF HMONG EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT By Kou Yang, Ed.D., California State University, Stansislaus
and Mark E. Pfeifer, Ph.D., Hmong Resource Center
HMONG AMERICAN WOMEN.S EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR HMONG AMERICAN WOMEN
AND MEN By Halee Vang, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Minnesota
WHAT YOU CANNOT SEE IN THE U.S. 2000 CENSUS By Reverend Kou Seying (Kxf. Nyaj Kub Thoj), Formerly of
Concordia University, Saint Paul
CONTESTED ECONOMIC GROWTH AMONG HMONG AMERICANS By Chia Youyee Vang, Ph.D. Candidate,
University of Minnesota
HMONG HOMEOWNERSHIP: UP SHARPLY IN THE 1990S BUT STILL LAGGING IN THE CENTRAL VALLEY By
Michael Grover and Richard M. Todd, Federal Reserve Bank, Minneapolis
The new census report contains the following appendices with maps and data tables:
MAPS Map 1 . Hmong Americans by County 2000 Map 2 . Hmong by County 2000 (dot density) Map 3 . Hmong
Growth by State 1990 . 2000 Map 4 . Hmong Population Change by County for California 1990 . 2000 Map 5 .
Hmong Population Change by County for Minnesota 1990 . 2000 Map 6 . Hmong Population Change by County
for Wisconsin 1990 . 2000
TABLES Table 1: Hmong Population Table 2: U.S. Regions and States Table 2A: Hmong American Population
Table 3: Metropolitan Areas Table 4: Age Distribution Table 5: Gender Distribution Table 6: Household Size and
Household Size by Tenure Table 7: Year of Entry Table 8: Migration Table 9: Linguistic Isolation Table 10: Ability
to Speak English by Age Table 11: Types of Disability Table 12: Citizenship Status Table 13: Educational
Attainment Table 13A: Educational Attainment, Males Table 13B: Educational Attainment, Females Table 14:
Housing Tenure Table 15: Income Table 16: Median Earnings by Gender Table 17: Poverty Status in 1999 by
Age Table 18: Public Assistance Income in 1999 for Household Table 19: Employment Status Table 19A:
Employment Status by Sex Table 20A: Industry Distribution Table 20B: Industry Distribution (continued) Table
20C: Industry Distribution (continued) Table 21A: Occupational Distribution, Males Table 21B: Occupational
Distribution, Males (continued) Table 21C: Occupational Distribution, Males (continued) Table 21D: Occupational
Distribution, Females Table 21E: Occupational Distribution, Females (continued) Table 21F: Occupational
Distribution, Females (continued)
Hmong National Development, Inc. (HND) is a national non-profit organization whose mission is “developing
capacity to ensure the full participation of Hmong in society”. HND works with local and national organizations,
public and private entities, and individuals to promote educational opportunities, to increase community capacity,
and to develop resources for the well-being, growth, and full participation of Hmong in society.
Hmong Cultural Center is a St. Paul, MN based organization with a nationally significant collection of Hmong
Studies related research (Hmong Resource Center) and a multicultural education focus. The mission of Hmong
Cultural Center is to promote the personal development of children, youth and adults through Hmong cultural
education while also providing resources to facilitate cross-cultural awareness and understanding between
Hmong and non-Hmong.
For census report ordering information, please visit: http://www.hndlink.org/datastat.htm
NEW BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY “THE STATE OF HMONG-AMERICAN STUDIES” AVAILABLE ONLINE:
A new bibliographic essay providing a discussion of important contemporary works and suggestions for future
research directions in Hmong-American Studies is available in PDF format at: http://hmongstudies.
In addition, a new selective annotated bibliography of Hmong-related works of interest to school and public
libraries is available in PDF format at: http://hmongstudies.learnabouthmong.org/Selective%20Bibliography%
NEW BUILDING BRIDGES: TEACHING ABOUT THE HMONG IN OUR COMMUNITIES MULTICULTURAL
EDUCATION OUTREACH PROGRAM:
To respond to the need for community education about the Hmong refugee experience, Hmong refugees from
Wat Thamkrabok and Hmong contributions to Minnesota, the Hmong Cultural Center's Hmong Resource Center
has started a new program that provides comprehensive 90 minute multicultural education presentations about
the Hmong to groups in the Twin Cities community and Greater Minnesota.
Common topics of the interactive presentations in the Building Bridges program include Hmong History, Hmong
Role in the Secret U.S. War in Laos 1963-1975, Why the Hmong fled Laos as Refugees, Hmong resettlement to
the U.S. 1976-1995, Early Experiences of Hmong in Saint Paul and Minnesota, Important leaders in 20th century
Hmong history, Hmong contributions to Minnesota, Prominent and Successful Hmong-Minnesotans, Hmong
Culture (clans, music, agriculture, clothing), the Hmong Language, Hmong beliefs about Health and Medicine,
Working with Hmong-origin students and their Families, Hmong refugees in Wat Thamkrabok and their
resettlement in the U.S.
Curriculum of presentations can be adjusted to meet the needs of particular groups. Presentations to health
professionals and educators also focus on the topics of cultural awareness training for work with clients of Hmong-
Arranged Presentations at the Cultural Center in Saint Paul are free of charge but optional donations are
requested by groups with institutional affiliations. Presentations at schools or organizations are available for a
standard fee. Diversity awareness presentations can also be given at corporations and other workplaces for a
fee. Please call 651-917-9937 and ask for Mark Pfeifer or Txong Pao Lee to discuss arranging a presentation at
the center or at your school or organization.
Hmong Cultural Center also co-sponsored 3 Building Bridges workshops this Fall with the Minnesota Humanities
Commission. About 50 educators and service professionals attended the workshop held October 17, 2004 at the
YOUTH PROGRAMS UPDATE:
Looking for some traditional Hmong culture to enliven your community event this Winter? The Hmong Cultural
Center’s Youth Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) Troupe is available to perform for a fee. Persons interested in
scheduling performances may call Txong Pao Lee at 651-917-9937.
CITIZENSHIP PROGRAM UPDATE:
Need information about the citizenship process, study guides or application forms? Extensive citizenship-related
information is available on the Hmong Cultural Center website at www.hmongcenter.org/ The citizenship section of
the website includes examples of typical citizenship interview questions, as well as 100 sample citizenship exam
questions in both the English and Hmong languages. Up-to-date information is also provided about eligibility and
requirements pertaining to the Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act of 2000.
Hmong Cultural Center is a member of the federal and state funded Saint Paul Community Literacy Consortium
Funding supporters of the Hmong Resource Center include the New York and Vermont-based Freeman
Foundation, the Bush Foundation, the Marbrook Foundation, the 3M Foundation/COMPAS Award for Innovation
in the Arts Program and the Asian Pacific Endowment of the Saint Paul Foundation.