Located in St. Paul, MN, the Hmong Cultural Center’s Resource Centre is one of the most comprehensive
centralized collections and lending libraries of Hmong-related books, PhD dissertations, indexed articles and
Hmong language literature in the United States. The collection also includes several exhibits of Hmong cultural

The Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9
AM – 6 PM. Most of the items in the Resource Centre may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of one
week. A photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Centre is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite
214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Website:

Hmong Resource Centre Director: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD; Hmong Cultural Center Executive Director: Txong Pao


Recent Resource Centre visitors have included:

Xia Lor, Northern Illinois University. Xia Lor is an M.A. student studying documentary film in the Communications
Department at Northern Illinois University located in Dekalb, Illinois. She is a recipient of a Fall 2002 Travel
Grant Recipient from the Hmong Resource Centre. While at the Resource Centre, Xia worked on a literature
review for her project related to the traditional and contemporary Hmong conceptions of personal birthdays, and
social constructions of the passage of time in the human lifecycle.

Mai Der Vang, University of California, Berkeley. Mai Der Vang is a student working toward earning a Bachelor’s
in English with a Minor in Creative Writing at the University of California, Berkeley. Mai Der is also a recipient of
a Fall 2002 Travel Grant from the Resource Centre. Mai Der used the centre’s collections to provide
documentation and develop a literature review for her research project related to the historic origins of Hmong
cultural practices.

Sneha Vaishnavi, an M.S. Student in the Textiles and Clothing program at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa
visited the Resource Centre for a day to collect information for her research project related to Hmong Textiles.

Say Xiong a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse used the Resource Centre collections to
put together a review of existing literature for her graduate research project pertaining to the experiences of
Hmong-American women in college.


The Hmong Studies Journal invites article submissions for its Spring 2003 issue.

The Hmong Studies Journal is a unique and established peer-reviewed Internet-based academic publication
devoted to the scholarly discussion of Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the
Hmong experience in the U.S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 5 online
issues since 1996. The Journal’s website is located at:

Hmong Studies-related articles from all disciplinary backgrounds and perspectives are welcome. Works
considered for submission must consist of original research and should not have been previously published
elsewhere. Articles for submission review should be sent on diskette or by e-mail attachment to Mark E. Pfeifer,
PhD Director, Hmong Resource Centre, Hmong Cultural Center, 995 University Avenue, Suite 214, Saint Paul,
MN 55104, e-mail: or to Anne Frank, Librarian, Southeast Asian Archive, University
of California, Irvine, The UCI Libraries, P.O. Box 19557, Irvine, CA 92623-9557, e-mail:
Submission Deadline Date: Jan. 15, 2003


"Annotated Bibliography of Hmong-Related Works: 1996-2002" is a 50-Page fully annotated bibliography of
Hmong-related works published between 1996 and 2002. This volume is the first annotated bibliography of
Hmong-related works published in more than 5 years and has recently been updated to include additional
published works from 2001 and 2002. Full reference information and descriptive summaries are provided for
nearly 350 Hmong-related academic journal articles, theses and dissertations, books and videos. Works are
organized into topical subcategories including Dictionaries, Bibliographies and Reference Works; Hmong in
Asia; Hmong Culture; The War in Laos and Refugee Resettlement Issues; Hmong Families, Parenting and
Gender Roles; Settlement Patterns and Socioeconomic Incorporation; Cultural Adaptation; Race Relations, The
Law, and Political Incorporation; Literacy and Educational Adaptation; Physical and Mental Health; Personal
Narratives of Hmong Americans; Juvenile Literature and Curriculum Materials for Teachers; Fiction; Videos and
Internet Resources.


For the past 2 years, the Hmong Cultural Center’s heavily visited educational website has included a small
Hmong Hall of Fame section

The existing modest Hall of Fame has proven to be one of the more popular parts of the cultural center’s
website. The cultural center has received feedback about the section from around the United States. Just a few
months ago, teachers from the Stevens Point, WI school district inquired about using the profiles in the Hall of
Fame section for a project with Hmong youth in the local high school.

The Hmong Cultural Center is now initiating a project to update and significantly expand the Hmong Hall of
Fame. The goals of this project are two-fold: to provide examples of role models for Hmong youth all over the
United States who visit the HCC website and to educate the broader community about the considerable
achievements and contributions of the Hmong diaspora in the U.S. and around the world. 2 volunteers are now
working at the cultural center on short profiles and biographies of notable Hmong women and men from all walks
of life. The cultural center very much welcomes nominations of individuals who could be included in the Hall of
Fame. If available, biographical information and scanned pictures of nominated individuals are also very much
welcome. The Hmong Cultural Center may be contacted at or 651-917-9937


Books and Theses

Lo, Kaying. (2002). Across the Ocean: The Impact of Immigration on Hmong Women. M.S. Thesis, University of
Wisconsin-Stout. In this thesis work, the author used a qualitative approach in seeking to understand the
transitions experienced by Hmong women living in the United States. This phenomenological study was based
on extensive open-ended interviews with four Hmong women who spoke about the life changes they have faced
due to immigration and their experiences as refugees.

Xiong, Shanie. (2002). Hmong Family Processes and Their Impact on Hmong Adolescents’ Delinquent
Behaviors: A Correlational Study. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. This thesis study examines the
importance of individual parenting variables that may influence Hmong adolescent delinquent behaviors. The
author interviewed 52 Hmong adolescents from Menomonie, WI, Eau Claire, WI and Saint Paul. The family
variables assessed included level of parental attachment, parental monitoring, and parental discipline practices.
In addition, the role of the level of parental acculturation was studied. The author found a high negative
correlation between parental attachment and delinquent behaviors and parental monitoring and delinquent
behaviors. A positive correlation existed for certain parental discipline practices and delinquent behaviors. The
researcher concludes the study with recommendations to assist Hmong adolescents and their parents.

Bondioli, Christopher A. (2000). Hmong Parent Education and Involvement and Its Impact on Children: A
Correlational Study. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. This thesis work examines the relationship
between the education of Hmong parents and involvement in school matters and the academic performance of
their children. The research was conducted among 20 Hmong parents in Menominee, Wisconsin. Academic
performance was measured by student achievement on the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading.
Results from the study showed a positive relationship between parental education level, parents providing
homework assistance to their kids, the amount of English spoken in the home, and the number of years the
parents had lived in the United States.

Schliesinger, Joachim. (2000). Ethnic Groups of Thailand: Non-Tai-Speaking Peoples. Bangkok: White Lotus
Press. This work provides a fairly brief comparative overview of the history, clothing and crafts, home and
village structures, agricultural and economic systems, social organization, as well as ceremonies, myths and
beliefs associated with 38 non-Thai ethnic groups living in Thailand including the Hmong. The book also
includes numerous color photographs of clothing and cultural artifacts.

Dirks, Suzanne C. (1999). The Hmong: A Human Resource in Transition. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-
Stout. This longitudinal study of assimilation and acculturation assessed the 1992, 1994, and 1996 Hmong-
origin graduates of Wausau East and Wausau West (WI) High Schools. The study examined post-secondary
trends, employment plans, encouragement of family and clans in educational plans, citizenship status of the 115
students and their parents, as well as their level of knowledge and retention of the Hmong language.

Chazee, Laurent. (1999). The Peoples of Laos: Rural and Ethnic Diversities. Bangkok: White Lotus Press. This
work provides fairly concise comparative information about the history, ethnic culture and indigenous values,
agro-ecosystems, socioeconomic structure, geographic distribution and natural resource management diversity
of 132 identified ethnic groups and subgroups in Laos including the Hmong. The volume also includes a large
folded color map that shows the geography of the 132 groups in terms of the national linguistic and ethnic
distribution pattern in Laos.

Vang, Ka and Mary Beth Higgins. (1999). An Examination of Gangs in Eau Claire, Wisconsin and the Community’
s Racial Perception of Gangs. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. The joint authors of this thesis study
attempted to examine the racial, gender and age makeup of youth gangs in Eau Claire, Wisconsin as well as the
larger community’s racial perceptions of these gangs. The authors used data from a survey conducted by the
Eau Claire area school district among all of the district’s middle school and high school students. They also
administered a survey to a sample of high school students and adult Eau Claire residents. The researchers
conclude the study with suggestions for helping youth stay out of gangs and improving race relations and racial
attitudes between Caucasians, Hmong and other ethnic groups in the Eau Claire area.

Diep Trung Binh and Barbara Cohen. (1997). Patterns on Textiles of the Ethnic Groups in Northeast of Vietnam.
Hanoi: Culture of Nationalities Publishing House. This book describes and displays the textiles and fabrics of
several ethnic groups residing in Northeast Vietnam including the Hmong. One chapter of the work is devoted to
discussing the textile patterns of White Hmong, Red Hmong, Variegated Hmong, Black Hmong and Chinese
Hmong in this region. The volume includes numerous color photographs with captions.

Academic Journal Articles

Ngo, Bic. (2002). “Contesting ‘Culture’: The Perspectives of Hmong American Female Students on Early
Marriage.” Anthropology and Education Quarterly 33(2): 163-188. This article explores the constructed
meanings of early marriage among Hmong American female students. The author attempts to move beyond
explanations of cultural difference in the examination and explication of the discourse and practice of early
marriage among Hmong-origin female adolescents. Drawing on the perspectives and experiences of Hmong
American female students, the researcher argues that early marriage may be an expression of students’
opposition to the structures of and experiences with school and family. The analysis focuses attention on the
fluidity of cultural and social practices and tensions between and within ethnic groups.

Lee, S.Q., Templer, D.I., Mar J., and M. Canfield. (2002). “Social Distance and Trait Attribution among four
Southeast Asian ethnic groups in the United States.” Psychological Reports 91(1): 326-330. This study explores
social distance and trait attribution and the relationship between the two sets of variables in persons from four
southeast Asian ethnic groups. The research sample included 100 Cambodians, 102 Hmong, 102 Laotians and
101 Vietnamese residing in the United States. The sample was administered a modified Social Distance Scale
with respect to seven different ethnic groups (the other 3 Southeast Asian groups, African American, Hispanic,
and White) and were asked to rate these groups on ten traits. The researchers discuss theoretical and practical
implications of their findings as these pertain to group relations and feelings of social distance between ethnic

Wezel, A., Steinmuller, N. and J.R. Friederichsen. (2002). “Slope Position Effects on Soil Fertility and Crop
Productivity and Implications for Soil Conservation in Upland Northwest Vietnam.” Agriculture Ecosystems and
Environment 91: (1-3): 113-126. Agriculture is increasingly practiced on the very steep slopes of mountainous
Vietnam with resulting serious problems of soil erosion and degradation. The researchers of this article studied
the soil parameters and crop yields of 19 maize and 25 cassava fields in Northwest Vietnam with a significant
level of inclination at upper and lower mid slope positions. Farmers’ preferences for different fanning system
components were assessed and soil conservation strategies were evaluated by the researchers in Hmong,
Black Thai, Xinh Mun and Khmu villages in the region. The authors observed that irrespective of the causes of
degradation, soil fertility was not a priority for farmers whose cropping management is currently focused on the
introduction of improved maize varieties. Consequently, they argue, only certain soil conservation and
fertilization strategies that include the long and short-term interests of farmers should be promoted in the future.

Tapp, Nicholas. (2000). “Ritual Relations and Identity: Hmong and Others.” In Civility and Savagery: Social
Identity in Tai States. A. Turton, Ed. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 84-103. The topic of this article is the
Sinicization of Hmong Culture in Southeast Asia. The author examines Chinese influences upon Hmong
Shamanism and Messianism. He argues that this Sinicization does not represent a triumph of the hegemonic
discourse of the Han majority over traditional Hmong ways but rather an effort among Hmong to incorporate
Chinese cultural influences in a successful effort to challenge the hegemony of the majority and preserve a
distinct cultural identity.

Kossikov, Igor. (2000). “Nationalities Policy in Modern Laos.” In Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai
States. A. Turton, Ed. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 227-244. This article analyzes the national ethnic policy
of the Lao government in the 1990s and its influence on the relative status of ethnic minority groups in Laos.
The author focuses particular attention on the situation of the Hmong minority in Laos in the 1980s and 1990s.
He provides evidence that there has been an increase in ethnic consciousness among the Hmong and other
minority groups in Laos over this time period. This enhanced ethnic consciousness and related efforts among
Hmong and other minorities to maintain traditions, culture, and the ancestral language has occurred at the
same time that the Lao government has attempted to impede these activities.


The Hmong Cultural Center’s Dance Troupe performed last weekend at a winter multicultural festival held at the
University of Wisconsin-Platteville. It was also recently announced that the Hmong Cultural Center youth
programs have been awarded a 2003 grant from the Grotto Foundation. The Hmong Cultural Center thanks the
Grotto Foundation for this important support of the center’s popular after-school cultural and academic-oriented
youth programming.

Looking for some traditional Hmong culture to enliven your community event this Winter? The Hmong Cultural
Center’s Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) and Traditional Dance troupes are available to perform for a fee.
Persons interested in scheduling performances may call Meng Vang (Qeej) or Yer Lo (Dance) at the cultural


Several recent students from Hmong Cultural Center’s Citizenship Classes for Hmong refugee adults have
passed the citizenship examination and were sworn in as new citizens at a ceremony held at Bethel College on
Wednesday, Nov. 20, 2002. Hmong Cultural Center congratulates its student graduates on this important

Need information about the citizenship process, study guides or application forms? Extensive citizenship-related
information is available on the Hmong Cultural Center website at The citizenship section
of the website includes examples of typical citizenship interview questions, as well as 100 sample citizenship
exam questions in both the English and Hmong languages. Up-to-date information is also provided about
eligibility and requirements pertaining to the Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act of 2000.

The Hmong Cultural Center is currently accepting enrollment for its citizenship and functional English classes.
There are openings in the English Language Citizenship Classes offered Monday through Thursday from 10:00
AM to 12 Noon and those held Tuesday through Thursday 1:00-4:00 P.M.

Interested individuals may contact Tong Vang at the Hmong Cultural Center for enrollment information. Phone:

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Citizenship and Functional English Program is a member of the federally and state
funded Saint Paul Community Literacy Consortium (SPCLC). The cultural center’s citizenship program for adult
refugees is also supported by a grant from the New Americans Collaborative of the Wilder Foundation.


The Resource Centre thanks its funding supporters. Our funders include the New York and Vermont-based
Freeman Foundation, the Pinewood Trust of the HRK Foundation, the Bush Foundation, the Minnesota
Humanities Commission in cooperation with the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Minnesota State
Legislature, the 3M Foundation, the Medtronic Foundation, the Marbrook Foundation and our growing
community of member-supporters.