The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9 AM
– 6 PM. Many of the items in the Resource Center may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of one week. A
photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite 214
in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Online Resource Center Catalog: www.

Hmong Resource Center Director: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD; Hmong Cultural Center Executive Director: Txong Pao Lee


Funding supporters of the Hmong Resource Center include the New York and Vermont-based Freeman
Foundation, the Bush Foundation, the 3M Foundation, the Pinewood Trust of the HRK Foundation, the Minnesota
Humanities Commission in partnership with the Minnesota State Legislature and the National Endowment for the
Humanities as well as the MAP for Nonprofit’s Technology Partnership Fund supported by the Saint Paul
Companies, Inc. Foundation and the ADC Foundation.


Recent visitors to the Resource Center in May 2003 have included:

Students and Tutors from Hmong-American Partnership’s English for New Americans Program. 11 Hmong-
American Partnership ESL students visited along with 7 ESL tutors from Macalester College’s Lives of Commitment
Program. 7 of the Hmong-origin ESL students authored short books about their lives and families with the
assistance of their Macalester tutors. These books are currently on display in the Hmong Resource Center.

Jean Paurus, a graduate student in Nursing at the University of Minnesota and an employee of the Hennepin
County Medical Center visited the Resource Center to find information related to Hmong beliefs about medicine
and illness.

Kalia Yang, a student at Carlton College, visited to find materials pertaining to the role of music in Hmong courtship

Michelle Willie, a student at the University of Saint Thomas, used the Resource Center to research Hmong family

K.C. Sharnberg, a student working on a thesis at the University of Texas at Austin visited the Resource Center on
multiple days to find information related to cultural programming and the retention of Hmong cultural identity among
Hmong-American youth.

Linda Gerdner, a Professor of Nursing at the University of Minnesota used the Resource Center to look at recently
published articles related to health and medical issues and Hmong in the United States.

Mai Yer Vang and Sheng Vang, students at Humboldt High School in Saint Paul used the Resource Center to find
sources for a school project focusing on the Hmong New Year.

Yeem Yang, a student at Como Park High School, visited the Resource Center to find information about the Hmong
role in the War in Laos for a school term paper.

Joy Yang, a student at Augsburg College, used the Resource Center to find published work related to the health of
Hmong elders in the United States.

16 Hmong youth from East High School and Preble High School in Green Bay, Wisconsin visited the Resource
Center with their group leaders Sarah Ly and Sarina Yang of Catholic Charities in Green Bay. The Green Bay
youth group received a tour of the Resource Center and the Hmong Cultural Center and participated in an
educational exercise related to Hmong culture and history.

Educational orientation activity sessions related to Hmong-related resources and Hmong history and culture are
available for interested groups. To schedule a group visit, please call the Hmong Cultural Center at 651-917-9937.


As noted in last month’s special edition of the newsletter, the U.S. census has begun releasing detailed
socioeconomic, demographic, and educational 2000 census data for Hmong and other Asian-Pacific Islander
ethnic groups (Summary File 4). This is the first time in more than 10 years that updated data on these variables
has been available for specific Asian-origin ethnic groups.

Variables in this release include Labor Force Status, Occupational and Industry Distribution, Median Household
Income, Median Family Income, Poverty Status, Educational Attainment and Income Distribution. Data breakdowns
for most of these variables are available by gender and may be tabulated by geographic area (census tract,
municipality, county, state, etc.)

Of particular interest to Hmong Studies scholars, the detailed Summary File 4 dataset has already been released
for Hmong and other ethnic groups in Wisconsin as well as several states with smaller Hmong populations including
Alaska, Texas, New York and Pennsylvania. Data for additional states with significant Hmong populations will be
released in the next few weeks. Summary File 4 Data for Georgia is scheduled to be released June 4. Data for
North and South Carolina is scheduled to be released June 11. The data may be accessed at in
the American Factfinder section.

Those persons with questions about accessing this data may contact Mark Pfeifer at the Hmong Resource Center.


With the dual goals of promoting scholarship in Hmong Studies and facilitating broader access to its unique
collections, the Hmong Resource Center will award travel grants to visit Saint Paul in the Fall Semester of 2003 to
several Hmong Studies scholars for the purpose of conducting research using the Resource Center’s extensive
collections of Hmong-related books, PhD dissertations, MA Theses, academic and newspaper articles as well as
Hmong language literature related to Hmong culture and history. The Hmong Resource Center collections include
about 300 Hmong-related books and periodicals, 125 Hmong-related theses and dissertations, about 475 Hmong-
related academic journal articles, over 2000 Hmong-related newspaper articles and around 100 videos.

The Hmong Resource Center Travel Grant program will award travel grants of $300 in August 2003 to two (2)
selected students/scholars who reside greater than 500 miles from Saint Paul, MN and travel grants of $150 to two
(2) selected students/scholars residing more than 100 miles from St. Paul in the Midwest region in such states as
Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, or Iowa.

Applicants must provide the following: a 250 word research statement about how access to the Hmong Resource
Center collection would be useful for their research, a letter of support from a professor at their university of
study/research as well as a curriculum vitae or resume. It is suggested that travel grant applicants visit the
Resource Center collection catalog on the Hmong Cultural Center website ( and provide
examples in their research proposal statements of specific books and materials in the collections that would be
useful for their research projects.

Applications should be mailed by July 31, 2003 to Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD, Director, Hmong Resource Center, Hmong
Cultural Center, 995 University Avenue, Suite 214 Saint Paul, MN 55104 for consideration. For further information
please call 651-917-9937 or e-mail


Kab Tshoob Kev Kos (Hmong Traditional Marriage), 2nd Edition, Editor: Lee Pao Yang. Author: Xai Dang S. Lee is
now available from the Hmong Cultural Center. This 122 page illustrated volume describes in detail the procedures
of the traditional Hmong marriage ceremony. This book is only available in the White Hmong RPA script. It is not
available in English. For more information about this obtaining this book please visit this link: http://www.


Dr. Jacques Lemoine of the French National Center of Scientific Research and the Ethnographic Data Bank for
Laos has donated a collection of his research papers spanning more than 30 years of ethnographic research on
Hmong culture in Southeast Asia and China to the Hmong Resource Center. The Resource Center thanks Dr.
Lemoine for his generous donation of these significant works in Hmong Studies scholarship. The donated research
papers include:

Lemoine, Jacques (2003). L’esprit et Le perroquet Reponse a’ Nicholas Tapp. From Aseanie 11 (June 2003): xx-

Lemoine, Jacques (2002). `A propos de Andrew Turton (ed.) Civility and Savagery Social Identity in Tai States:
Civilization (Civilite’? Citoyennete’? Urbanite’? et sauvagerie. From Aseanie 9 (June 2002): 147-175.

Tapp, Nicholas (2002). `A propos de Civility and Savagery Social Identity in Tai States: La perruche et le maitre
Hmong Reponse a’ Jacques Lemoine. Aseanie 10 (December 2002): 197-204.

Lemoine, Jacques (1998). Dialectique des ethnicitiès et des nationalitès en Chine from L’Homme 148: 231-250.

Lemoine, Jacques (1997). Fonction et rèbellion. La place de la femme a’ l’intèrieur et a’ la pèriphèrie du monde
chinois from Social Anthropology 5(3): 255-275.

Lemoine, Jacques (1989). Ethnicity, Culture and Development Among Some Minorities of the People’s Republic of
China. From New Asian Academic Bulletin, Special Issue on Ethnicity and Ethnic Groups in China 8: 1-10.

Lemoine, Jacques (1988). The Bridge: An Essential Implement of Hmong and Yao Shamanism from Shaman’s
Path: Healing, Personal Growth, and Empowerment, edited by Gary Doore, 63-72. Boston: Shambhala.

Lemoine, Jacques (1987). Mythes d’origine, mythes d’identification from L’Homme 101, Janv.-Mars 1987 XXVII(1) :

Lemoine, Jacques (1972). Les Ecritures du Hmong from Bulletin des Amis du Royaume Lao No. 7-8 : 123-165.

Lemoine, Jacques (1970). Contribution A L’ethnobotanique des Hmong du Laos from Journal D’Agriculture
Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquèe XVII : 1-59.

Lemoine, Jacques (Publication Information Unavailable) La Mort Et Ses Rites Chez Les Hmong


Theses and Books

Lang, Xiong; William J. Xiong; Nao Leng Xiong (2002). English-Mong/Mong-English Dictionary. Milwaukee, WI:
Xiong Partnership Productions. 8th printing edition of comprehensive 2-wayGreen Mong/English dictionary.

Academic Articles

Jacques Lemoine (2003). L’esprit et Le perroquet Reponse a’ Nicholas Tapp. Aseanie 11 (June 2003): xx-xxxxxxxxx.

Jacques Lemoine (2002). `A propos de Andrew Turton (ed.) Civility and Savagery Social Identity in Tai States:
Civilization (Civilite’? Citoyennete’? Urbanite’? et sauvagerie.” Aseanie 9 (June 2002): 147-175.

Nicholas Tapp (2002). “`A propos de Civility and Savagery Social Identity in Tai States: La perruche et le maitre
Hmong Reponse a’ Jacques Lemoine.” Aseanie 10 (December 2002): 197-204.

The above series of 3 articles from the French language journal Aseanie pertain to a recent debate engaged in by
prominent Hmong Studies scholars Dr. Jacques Lemoine and Dr. Nicholas Tapp. The wide-ranging debate
encompasses numerous topics in the field of Hmong Studies ethnographic research in China and Southeast Asia.
Among the many issues discussed in the exchanges between the two scholars include the temporal geographic-
environmental history of Hmong residing in China, the relative influence of Chinese culture upon Hmong religion,
the core characteristics of Hmong Shamanism, and the meaning and significance of certain Hmong myths and
rituals. The Resource Center would like to thank Dr. Jacques Lemoine of the French National Center of Scientific
Research and the Ethnographic Data Bank for Laos for donating this series of articles to the Hmong Resource
Center and Dr. Nicholas Tapp, Senior Fellow in the Department of Anthropology in the Research School of Pacific
and Asian Studies Studies at Australian National University in Canberra, Australia for his feedback on the content
of the series.

Amalia Anderson; Taya Moxley-Goldsmith and Patrick Ostergren (2002). “Community, Conflict and Consensus:
Responses to Proposed Hmong Marriage Legislation.” Paper prepared by Hamline University School of Law and
College of William Mitchell students enrolled in Equal Justice: Applied Research Class, Fall 2002, College of
William Mitchell, 46 pages. An informative and balanced look at the history of the Hmong marriage bill in Minnesota
politics over the past decade. Includes numerous interviews from community members presenting diverse opinions
about the need for a Hmong marriage bill and the perceived appropriate content of legislation providing official
marriage solemnization status to Hmong Mej Koob marriage facilitators. This work, which provides a comprehensive
long-term view of the debate over the content of the bill might be of particular interest to policymakers and
community members who have been involved in recent continuing efforts to shape Hmong marriage bill legislation
in the Minnesota legislature.

Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera; Elanah D. Naftali; Cindy Jacobson and Zha Blong Xiong (2002). “Cultural Feeding
Practices and Child-Raising Philosophy Contribute to Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Refugee Hmong Children.”
Ethnicity and Disease 12 (Spring 2002): 199-205. The researchers of this study observed that iron-deficiency
anemia was high in Hmong toddlers attending Special Supplemental Food Programs for Women, Infants, and
Children (WIC) in Saint Paul, MN. The authors of the work investigated social and cultural explanations for the
feeding practices of Hmong parents that result in excessive milk and inadequate food intake among infants and
toddlers contributing to iron-deficiency anemia.

Mary Levenick. (2001). “Hmong and Prenatal Care.” Journal of Cultural Diversity 8(1): 26-29. This work provides a
concise overview of pertinent Hmong-related cultural information for Advanced Practice Nurses who provide
prenatal care to Hmong clients.


Tougeu Leepalao (2003). Zoo lus tseem ntsiab qhia tib neeg taug txoj Kev zoo nyob hauv lub qab Ntuj Khwb no. A
Hmong language spoken word recording compiled by Hmong Cultural Center’s cultural specialist Tougeu
Leepalao. This tape provides information about ethics and moral behavior for Hmong young people.

Tougeu Leepalao (2003). Dab neeg qhia txoj Kev kaj siab rau tib Neeg mus. Kaw txoj Kevel tsaus ntuj tseg Txhob
ntshaw mus. A Hmong language spoken word recording compiled by Hmong Cultural Center’s cultural specialist
Tougeu Leepalao. This tape is a compilation of short Hmong fables intended to teach lessons in ethics and moral

Tougeu Leepalao (2003). Kwv txhiaj hmoob. Muaj: kwv txhiaj, Kwv chab ntau yam Nyob hauv daimkas Xev no ua
twb zoo Mloog mas kho lub Siab Kawg nkaus. A Hmong language recording compiled by Hmong Cultural Center’s
cultural specialist Tougeu Leepalao. This tape consists of a compilation of orally recited Hmong folksongs.


Hmong Cultural Center’s Qeej Music and Dance Troupes recently performed at the Wilder Foundation’s Taste of
Frogtown event in Saint Paul. Looking for some traditional Hmong culture to enliven your community event this
Summer or Fall? The Hmong Cultural Center’s Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) and Traditional Dance troupes are
available to perform for a fee. Persons interested in scheduling performances may call Meng Vang (Qeej) or Yer
Lo (Dance) at the cultural center.

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Youth Arts Programs are supported by grants from the McKnight Foundation, the
Best Buy Children’s Foundation, the Grotto Foundation, the Metropolitan Regional Arts Council and the
COMPAS/Medtronic Community Arts Program. Operating grants from the Saint Paul Companies Inc. Foundation
and the General Mills Foundation also help to support the youth programs.


Beginning Monday, June 9, the Hmong Cultural Center will hold a series of workshops for Hmong parents of
teenagers with the assistance of Lao Lee of the Saint Paul Public Schools. The workshops will also include
information about alcohol and drug awareness for Hmong parents. For more information about enrollment in these
workshops please contact Txong Pao Lee at the Hmong Cultural Center at 651-917-9937. These workshops are
made possible by mini-grants received from the Saint Paul-Ramsey County Department of Public Health


The Hmong Cultural Center is currently accepting enrollment for its citizenship and functional English classes.
There are openings in the English language Citizenship classes offered Monday through Thursday from 10:00 AM
to 12 Noon, the Hmong language Citizenship classes held Tuesday through Thursday 1:00-4:00 P.M. and the
English Language Citizenship Classes held Monday through Thursday from 4:30 to 6:30 P.M. For more information
call MayTong Chang at the cultural center (651-917-9937).

Need information about the citizenship process, study guides or application forms? Extensive citizenship-related
information is available on the Hmong Cultural Center website at The citizenship section of
the website includes examples of typical citizenship interview questions, as well as 100 sample citizenship exam
questions in both the English and Hmong languages. Up-to-date information is also provided about eligibility and
requirements pertaining to the Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act of 2000.

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Citizenship and Functional English Program is a member of the federally and state
funded Saint Paul Community Literacy Consortium (SPCLC). The cultural center’s citizenship program for adult
refugees is also supported by a grant from the New Americans Collaborative of the Wilder Foundation