Located in St. Paul, MN, the Hmong Cultural Center’s Resource Centre is one of the most comprehensive
centralized collections and lending libraries of Hmong-related books, PhD dissertations, indexed articles and
Hmong language literature in the United States. The collection also includes several exhibits of Hmong cultural

The Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 10
AM – 6 PM. Most of the items in the Resource Centre may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of one
week. A photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Centre is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite
214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Website:
Contact: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD, Resource Centre Director


The Bush Foundation has awarded a new 2-year grant to the Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural
Center. The grant will provide $25,000 in 2002 and $15,000 in 2003 for the Resource Centre’s programs. The
grant award was approved at the Bush Foundation’s March 2002 board meeting. The Hmong Cultural Center
would like to thank the Bush Foundation for its generous support of our mission of providing resources for the
purpose of promoting cross-cultural awareness and understanding among and between Hmong and non-Hmong

Other funding supporters of the Hmong Resource Centre include the Pinewood Trust of the HRK Foundation,
the New York and Vermont-based Freeman Foundation, the Marbrook Foundation, the 3M Foundation, the
Medtronic Foundation and the Minnesota Humanities Commission in cooperation with the National Endowment
for the Humanities and the Minnesota State Legislature.


On March 5, groups of undergraduate students majoring in Social Work at Bemidji State University and The
College of Saint Scholastica in Duluth each spent an hour at the Resource Centre as part of a day visiting the
Minnesota State Capital and immigrant service agencies in Saint Paul. The students learned about Hmong
culture, the Hmong population in the Twin Cities and Hmong-related resources.

Educational orientation sessions related to Hmong-related resources and Hmong history and culture are
available for interested groups. To schedule a group visit, please call Mark Pfeifer at the Resource Centre.


The U.S. Census Bureau has begun releasing more detailed Hmong-origin data from the 2000 census. The
newly available data may be viewed at the census website at in the American FactFinder
section. The new data is part of Summary File 2. It includes the variables of age group distribution and gender
distribution, household tenure (home ownership vs. rental), household size, family size, and household type. The
data is being released on a state-by- state basis. Geographic areas must have at least 100 Hmong in order for
tables related to the above variables to be generated. Thus far, the household, family, and age group data has
been released for the following states with more than 100 Hmong: Oregon, Rhode Island, Alaska, Utah, and
Iowa. Data is being released for additional states weekly. The data may be tabulated for entire states or for
cities, counties and even census tracts within particular cities. Socioeconomic data will be released later this
year. Data related to the same variables is also available for more than 200 other ethnic and population groups
including Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Lao. Basic population data for the Hmong-origin population was
released by the census in the Summer of 2001 and may be viewed as part of Summary File 1 on the census
website or at

This new data will likely be of considerable interest to many educators, social science researchers, and human
service agency professionals who work with the Hmong. Individuals with further questions about how to access
this newly available census data may contact Mark Pfeifer at the Resource Centre. The Resource Centre plans
to make available additional reports related to demographic and socioeconomic trends among the enumerated
Hmong population later in 2002. A report about Hmong population trends across the United States is currently
available from the Resource Centre. For further information about ordering this report visit: http://www.


PhD Dissertations and MA Theses

Moua, X. (2001). Hmong clan leaders' roles and responsibilities, MSW Thesis, California State University,
Fresno. This Master’s of Social Work thesis focuses on exploring through ethnographic interviews the role that
Hmong clan leaders play in the indigenous helping network of the Hmong community in Merced and Fresno
counties in California. The study is based on the premise that cultural conflicts between the Hmong community
and formal social services institutions can be resolved more effectively by increasing knowledge about the roles
and responsibilities of Hmong clan leaders. The research identified five major themes: (a)clan leaders' roles and
responsibilities; (b)the importance of kinship ties in the decision-making process; (c)factors affecting Hmong
identity; (d); the roles of Hmong clan leaders as service providers in the U.S., and (e)clan leaders'
recommendations for culturally-sensitive social services. The authors also observed that clan leaders' decision-
making roles with Hmong families, especially as they relate to children is important for interactions with child
welfare agencies.

Smith, N.J. (2001). Ethnicity, reciprocity, reputation and punishment: An ethnoexperimental study of cooperation
among the Chaldeans and Hmong of Detroit (Michigan). Phd Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
This PhD research seeks to uncover the elements that maintain cooperation within ethnic communities by
studying the Chaldean (Christians who descend from present-day Iraq and the ancient Mesopotamia region in
the Middle East) community in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan. A secondary study was conducted in the Hmong
community, also in metropolitan Detroit, in order to explore the extent to which the means for cooperation found
among the Chaldeans may be part of a cross-cultural repertoire and how the same mechanisms may take on
different forms across groups. The research consisted primarily of interviews, participant observation and
economic-style experiments.

Tanaka, S.T. (2001). Immigrant farmer's gold mine: The strawberry (California). MA Thesis, California State
University, Stanislaus. This MA study compares the experiences of Hmong-American and earlier generations of
Japanese-American strawberry growers in California's Central Valley through oral histories, interviews, and
photographs. Interviews with current farmers were conducted to obtain modern information to compare with
historical data gathered from retired growers and oral history accounts. Black and white still photographs taken
by the researcher and collected from archive sources serve as points of visual comparison between old and
new. A comparison of the two groups suggests that strawberry cultivation is an entrance crop for immigrants with
an agricultural background.

Academic Journal Articles and Reports

Schuchman, K.M. (2002). “Hmong Mental Health in Ramsey County: Recommendations to the Legislature.” A
“Toward Better Mental Health: A Community Approach” report, sponsored by the Hmong Mental Health Providers
Network and the Council on Asian Pacific Minnesotans. An 11-page report that outlines a series of
recommendations related to the provision of mental health services to persons of Hmong-origin in Minnesota.
The detailed recommendations for the Minnesota State Legislature include the following: Address the Special
Mental Health Needs of Immigrant Survivors of Trauma; Improve Funding or Support `Universal Health Care’ and
`Mental Health Parity’ ; Remove Access Barriers to Mental Health Services; Provide Community Mental Health
Education (includes recommended improvements to community health education for Hmong persons); Increase
Mental Health and Social Services (includes a list of mental health services especially needed for Hmong-origin
persons); Increase the Capacity of the Hmong Community to Provide Mental Health Services; Increase the Ability
of Mainstream Services to Serve the Hmong Community and Increase Mental Health Research.

Lee, S.J. (2001). “More than `Model Minorities’ or `Delinquents’: A Look at Hmong American High School
Students.” Harvard Educational Review, 71(3): 505-528. A research article focusing on the experiences of
Hmong students in a Wisconsin high school. The author explores the ways in which economic forces,
relationships with the dominant society, perceptions of opportunities, family relationships, culture, and
educational experiences affect Hmong American Students’ attitudes toward school, and the variation that exists
among 1.5 generation and second-generation youth. The researcher discusses how forces inside and outside
school settings affect Hmong student attitudes toward education. The article concludes with recommendations
for how schools might better meet the needs of Hmong-origin students.

Hein, J. (1997). “Leadership Continuity and Change in Hmong Refugee Communities in the United States.” Asian
and Pacific Migration Journal 6(2): 213-228. A research article focusing on leadership dynamics in Hmong
communities in the U.S. The author used interview data from 40 Hmong leaders in 10 communities to determine
if indigenous sources of leadership have continued to determine who becomes a leader after resettlement. The
majority of the Hmong leaders were leaders in Southeast Asia and had close kin who were leaders, indicating
leadership continuity. The author found though, that whether these leaders had held few or many leadership
positions in the U.S., was determined not by prior leadership or kinship, but by factors associated with
acculturation. Initial leadership status in the host society was related to authority structures from the homeland
but social change influenced subsequent leadership careers. The Hmong Resource Centre thanks Professor
Jeremy Hein of the University of Wisconsin Eau-Claire for his generous donation of this article to our collections.


The Hmong Cultural Center is currently accepting enrollment on an ongoing basis for some of its citizenship and
functional English classes. There are openings in the English Language Citizenship Classes offered Monday
through Thursday from 10:00 AM to 12 Noon and those held Tuesday through Thursday 1:00-4:00 P.M.

Congress has extended the Hmong Veterans’ Act for another 18 months. Hmong veterans who qualify study for
a set of 25 questions instead of 100. The questions are administered in the language of the veteran’s choice.
Interested individuals may contact Tong Vang at the Hmong Cultural Center for enrollment information. Phone:


The Hmong Cultural Center’s Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) and Traditional Dance troupes are available to
perform for a fee. Persons interested in scheduling performances may call Meng Vang (Qeej) or Yer Lo (Dance)
at the cultural center.