ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Resource Newsletter provides up-to-date information
about new works in Hmong Studies and Hmong-related research resources. To access back issues of
this unique online publication visit:


The work of the Hmong Resource Center is to provide information to Hmong and non-Hmong for the
purpose of promoting positive race relations, human rights, multicultural education, information about
cross-cultural health and medicine, teacher education, family literacy education and community-based
research. The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday
through Friday from 9 AM – 6 PM. The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’
s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite 214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Online Resource Center Catalog: or www. Walk-ins are welcome and there are many displays to look at that teach about the
Hmong people, their history, their culture and their experience in the U.S. over the past 25 years. Larger
group tours and educational sessions may be arranged in advance.

The Hmong Cultural Center and its Resource Center serves as the Hmong representative organization on
the Council of Advisors of Tolerance Minnesota.



Dearborn, Lynne M. (2004). Immigrant culture and housing provision, examining the nexus: A case study
of the ACTS Landmark Housing Program and its Hmong participants (Wisconsin). PhD Dissertation,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. This qualitative dissertation case study of the ACTS Landmark
Housing Program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Hmong homeowners within the program, investigates
three research questions: (1)What are the short-term residential goals and long-term residential ideals of
Hmong Landmark participants; are those goals and ideals linked to cultural characteristics and
experiences? (2)What specifically has facilitated homeownership for Hmong households who have
become owners through the Landmark Housing Program? (3)What are the outcomes of Hmong
residential choice taking place within the Landmark Housing Program and what are the behavioral and
attitudinal consequences of those outcomes? The 450 page dissertation also includes several maps
related to the Hmong residential distribution in Milwaukee neighborhoods.

Griffin, Lisa Anne. (2004). Immigrant schoolgirl: Making the American dream the Hmong way. PhD
Dissertation, Stanford University. This case study seeks to understand how Hmong schoolgirls have
successfully stayed in school, despite encountering more than the usual barriers to completing school,
including early marriage and early childbearing. It addresses how the historical and present day
construction of gender in Hmong culture affects girls' experience of schooling and their aspirations. The
narratives of 54 Hmong schoolgirls in California help to describe and understand their motivation and
sense-making of their experiences.

La Crosse County Health Department and La Crosse Area Hmong Mutual Assistance Association.
(2004). Hmong Tobacco Cessation and Prevention: Kev tivthaiv thiab/Kev txiav luamyeeb. Research
Report. 19 Pages. La Crosse, WI: La Crosse County Health Department and La Crosse Area Hmong
Mutual Assistance Association. Report of findings of a study of tobacco use and knowledge of health
consequences among Hmong youth and adults residing in Wisconsin. The Hmong Resource Center
thanks Al Bliss of the La Crosse County Health Department for donating this item to our collections.

Landelle, Amy Jane Erkonen. (2004). Motivations, language learning beliefs, and experiences of Hmong
and Spanish-speaking students in the foreign language classroom. PhD Dissertation, University of
Minnesota. This study explores the motivations, language learning beliefs, and language learning
experiences of native Hmong and Spanish-speaking students enrolled in foreign language classes at the
secondary level. This study was conducted with 26 students and 10 educators from high schools in two
large suburban districts in Minnesota.

Withers, Andrea C. (2003). Hmong language and cultural maintenance in Merced City, California. MA
Thesis, San Jose State University. The focus of this graduate thesis is to ascertain whether the Hmong
language and culture were shifting or were being maintained in Merced City, California. The results of the
study showed that the Hmong population in Merced seemed to be undergoing a generational shift in their
heritage language in terms of both ability and use, as well as their heritage culture in terms of both
attitudes about it and participation in it. However, it was also found that the Hmong community in Merced
had a system of perpetuating its language and culture in the younger generations as they grew older such
that a reverse in language and cultural shift might be possible in the future.

Academic Articles

Allen, Margaret (Peg), Matthew, Susan, and Mary Jo Boland. (2004). “Working with Immigrant and
Refugee Populations: Issues and Hmong Case Study.” Library Trends 53(2): 301-328. This article
discusses the challenges related to providing health information for immigrants and refugees in the
context of developing health education/health literacy programs. It assesses lessons discerned from
National Library of Medicine (NLM)-funded health information programs for Hmong populations in

Lie, Gwat-Yong, Pahoua Yang, Kalyani Rai and Pa Y. Vang. (2004). “Hmong Children and Families.” In
Culturally Competent Practice With Immigrant and Refugee Children and Families, editor, Rowena Fong.
New York: The Guilford Press, 122-145. This article provides basic cultural information for providers who
work with Hmong children and families. The work also discusses problems and issues faced by Hmong-
Americans as well as community strengths and resilient cultural values.

Portis, Andrew J., Hermans, Kate, Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A., and Gary C. Curhan. (2004). “Rapid
Communication: Stone Disease in the Hmong of Minnesota: Initial Description of a High Risk
Population.” Journal of Endourology 18(9): 853-857. Short paper describing research in Minnesota
pertaining to stone disease among Hmong-Americans.

Tapp, Nicholas. (2004). “Hmong Places and Locality.” In Making Place: State Projects, Globalization and
Local Responses in China. Ed. Steven Feuchtwang. London: Cavendish Publishing, 133-148. This article
discusses the senses of place that exist among Hmong in Thailand and China. The work is primarily
based on ethnographic research conducted by the author in Thailand (1981-92) and China (1989, 2000).
The Hmong Resource Center thanks Professor Nicholas Tapp of Australian National University for
donating this item to our collections.

Tapp, Nicholas and Don Cohn, Eds. (2003). The Tribal Peoples of Southeast Asia: Chinese Views of the
Other Within. Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus Press. This volume consists of color “Miao” photo album
paintings from the late 18th and 19th centuries in China. The illustrations are accompanied by their
Chinese text and translations as well as ethnographic notes that describe features providing information
about the Hmong and other Miao group lifestyles in China during this time period. The Hmong Resource
Center thanks Professor Nicholas Tapp of Australian National University for donating this item to our


La Crosse County Health Department and La Crosse Area Hmong Mutual Assistance Association.
(2004). Hmong Tobacco Cessation and Prevention: Kev tivthaiv thiab/Kev txiav luamyeeb. La Crosse
County Health Department and La Crosse Area Hmong Mutual Assistance Association. Videotape.
Based on a 2002 survey, U.S. born Hmong smoke more than one and one half times as frequently as do
foreign-born Hmong. This video explains the history of Hmong tobacco use, why Hmong typically start
smoking, and the consequences of secondhand smoke, nicotine addiction, health effects, techniques and
advantages of quitting as well as available resources. The video includes testimony from three
physicians, two of whom are Hmong, as well as ex-smokers. They present both personal and scientific
information supporting quitting smoking for a healthier and longer life. This new video may also be
ordered from Al Bliss, La Crosse County Health Department, 300 N. 4th Street, La Crosse, WI 54601.
608-785-9872. The Hmong Resource Center thanks Al Bliss for his donation of this item to our Hmong
video lending library.


Staff of Saint Joseph’s Hospital (Saint Paul) visited to learn about cultural etiquette for interacting with
Hmong clients

Linda Shoemaker, an Americorps intern at the Minnesota Department of Human Rights visited to use the
Hmong Resource Center’s Human Rights and Race Relations collections

Danai Vang of Eau Claire, WI visited to use the Resource Center’s collection of scholarly materials
related to Hmong youth and education in the United States for his graduate research.

Sarah Handlik, a student from Hamline University, visited to find materials for a term paper pertaining to
Hmong-related resources for educational professionals


The Hmong Resource Center has recently received grants to support its work in 2005 from the New York
and Vermont-based Freeman Foundation and the Minneapolis-based Marbrook Foundation. We are very
grateful for the support of these foundations for our educational outreach and multicultural resource
development work.


The Hmong Resource Center has partnered with Craig Rice to provide up-to-date content related to
community educational events, Hmong resources and Hmong Studies for the WWW Hmong Homepage.
Craig Rice co-founded the WWW Hmong Homepage in early 1994. The website was one of the first to
provide substantive educational resources related to Hmong-Americans and Hmong around the world.
The WWW Hmong Homepage is still one of the most heavily utilized educational websites related to the
Hmong. To view the relaunched WWW Hmong Homepage visit:


Hmong Cultural Center’s Hmong Resource Center has launched a new multicultural education website: The new Learn about Hmong website uses online video clips and other
multimedia technologies to teach about the Hmong people, and promote a better understanding of the
Hmong people and their experience in Minnesota and the United States.

The launch of the new site was celebrated with Hmong folk arts performances in a special event attended
by 70 persons of all ages held at the Hmong Cultural Center on Monday, December 7. A short
documentary of this special event may be viewed at:

A highlight of the website is a 38 slide comprehensive “Hmong 101” presentation with information about
Hmong History, the Hmong refugee experience, the new Hmong refugees coming from Wat Thamkrabok,
Hmong life in America, the basics of Hmong culture and cultural etiquette for service providers and others
who interact with traditional Hmong. Other features include a photo essay of Hmong businesses which
have helped revitalize several Saint Paul neighborhoods, video clips of important Hmong community
events in Minnesota, and profiles of Hmong who were pioneers in the fields of medicine, academia, law
and politics. The website also teaches about traditional Hmong folk arts through video clips of Hmong
musical instruments, folksongs and Hmong embroidery. The new website was featured in a Saint Paul
Pioneer Press article on Monday, December 20. is a new and unique multimedia website intended to promote multicultural
education about the Hmong people. has been made possible by a grant from the
3M/COMPAS Award for Innovation in the Arts Program and the Asian Pacific Endowment of the Saint
Paul Foundation.


The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center has published volume 5 of the Hmong
Studies Journal online at:

The Hmong Studies Journal is the only peer-reviewed academic publication devoted to the scholarly
discussion of Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the Hmong experience in
the U.S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 7 online issues in 5
volumes with a total of 32 scholarly articles since 1996.

Articles featured in volume 5 of the Hmong Studies Journal include:

Medical, Racist, and Colonial Constructions of Power: Creating the Asian American Patient and the
Cultural Citizen in Anne Fadiman’s The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Monica Chiu, PhD,
University of New Hampshire

Hmong Transnational Identity: the Gendering of Contested Discourses by Roberta Julian, PhD University
of Tasmania, Australia

Caught Between Cultures: Hmong Parents in America’s Sibling Society by Tamara L. Kaiser, PhD
University of St. Thomas

Hmong-American K-12 Students and the Academic Skills needed for a College Education: A Review of
the Existing Literature and Suggestions for Future Research by Christopher T. Vang, PhD California
State University, Stanislaus

Hmong Parents’ Perceptions on Instructional Strategies for Educating their Children with Disabilities by
Halee Vang & Manuel T. Barrera, PhD University of Minnesota

Southeast Asian Adolescents’ Perceptions of Immigrant Parenting Practices by Zha Blong Xiong, PhD
and Daniel F. Detzner, PhD University of Minnesota and Michael J. Cleveland, Ph.D. Iowa State University

In addition to the internet edition, the Hmong Studies Journal will also publish a physical print edition of
volume 5 in early 2005 which will include the six volume 5 articles as well as additional bibliographic
content intended to promote awareness of the growing Hmong Studies discipline.

Studies Journal invites article submissions for its 2005 issue (Volume 6). The deadline for submissions to
be considered for the 2005 issue is March 15, 2005.

Hmong Studies-related scholarly articles from all disciplinary backgrounds and perspectives are
welcome. Works considered for submission must consist of original research and not have been
previously published elsewhere. Book reviews are welcome but works consisting primarily of non-original
literature reviews of other works generally are not accepted. Neither are works that consist primarily of
political-oriented commentary. Articles for submission review should be sent on diskette or by e-mail
attachment to Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD Director, Hmong Resource Center, Hmong Cultural Center, 995
University Avenue, Suite 214, Saint Paul, MN 55104, e-mail: or to Anne
Frank, Librarian, Southeast Asian Archive, University of California, Irvine, The UCI Libraries, P.O. Box
19557, Irvine, CA 92623-9557, e-mail:

Please note: As a peer-reviewed journal, the Hmong Studies Journal reserves the right to suggest and
request revisions to any submitted article. The editors and editorial board of the Hmong Studies Journal
will review all articles and subsequent drafts for possible submission and will decide whether articles are
to be accepted or declined.

To view all of the articles in the past issues of the Hmong Studies Journal visit: http://www.hmongstudies.

A new bibliographic essay providing a discussion of important contemporary works and suggestions for
future research directions in Hmong-American Studies is available in PDF format at: http://hmongstudies.

In addition, a new selective annotated bibliography of Hmong-related works of interest to school and
public libraries is available in PDF format at:


Building Bridges - Teaching about the Hmong in our Communities Program

To respond to the need for community education about the Hmong refugee experience, Hmong refugees
from Wat Thamkrabok and Hmong contributions to Minnesota, the Hmong Cultural Center's Hmong
Resource Center has started a new program that provides comprehensive 90 minute multicultural
education presentations about the Hmong to groups in the Twin Cities community and Greater Minnesota.

Common topics of the interactive presentations in the Building Bridges program include Hmong History,
Hmong Role in the Secret U.S. War in Laos 1963-1975, Why the Hmong fled Laos as Refugees, Hmong
resettlement to the U.S. 1976-1995, Early Experiences of Hmong in Saint Paul and Minnesota, Important
leaders in 20th century Hmong history, Hmong contributions to Minnesota, Prominent and Successful
Hmong-Minnesotans, Hmong Culture (clans, music, agriculture, clothing), the Hmong Language, Hmong
beliefs about Health and Medicine, Working with Hmong-origin students and their Families, Hmong
refugees in Wat Thamkrabok and their resettlement in the U.S.

Curriculum of presentations can be adjusted to meet the needs of particular groups. Presentations to
health professionals and educators also focus on the topics of cultural awareness training for work with
clients of Hmong-origin.

Arranged Presentations at the Cultural Center in Saint Paul are free of charge but optional donations are
requested by groups with institutional affiliations. Please call 651-917-9937 and ask for Mark Pfeifer or
Txong Pao Lee to discuss arranging a presentation at the center or at your school or organization.

Hmong Cultural Center is co-sponsoring a Building Bridges workshop with the Saint Paul Public School’s
Community Education Department the evening of February 7 at Como Park High School in Saint Paul.
Please visit the following link for registration information (PDF Link, p. 2): http://commed.spps.

The Building Bridges Program has recently received a 2 year grant from the Saint Paul Foundation.
Hmong Cultural Center is very grateful to the foundation for its important support of our race relations
outreach programming at a time when it is much needed in our communities.


Looking for some traditional Hmong culture to enliven your community event this Winter? The Hmong
Cultural Center’s Youth Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) Troupe is available to perform for a fee. Persons
interested in scheduling performances may call Txong Pao Lee at 651-917-9937.

The Qeej program has recently received funding support for 2005 from the Metro Regional Arts Council
and the Medtronic/COMPAS Arts Access Program. Hmong Cultural Center would like to thank MRAC
and Medtronic as well as COMPAS for this important support of our youth development-focused arts
programming for children and youth.


Need information about the citizenship process, study guides or application forms? Extensive citizenship-
related information is available on the Hmong Cultural Center website at The
citizenship section of the website includes examples of typical citizenship interview questions, as well as
100 sample citizenship exam questions in both the English and Hmong languages. Up-to-date
information is also provided about eligibility and requirements pertaining to the Hmong Veterans’
Naturalization Act of 2000.

Hmong Cultural Center is a member of the federal and state funded Saint Paul Community Literacy
Consortium (SPCLC)


Funding supporters of the Hmong Resource Center include the New York and Vermont-based Freeman
Foundation, the Marbrook Foundation, the 3M Foundation/COMPAS Award for Innovation in the Arts
Program and the Asian Pacific Endowment of the Saint Paul Foundation.

Dear Friends:

First of all, apologies for any cross-postings

This is a reminder of the University of Minnesota Asian American Studies Program lecture by Linguistic
Scholar Martha Ratliff PhD of Wayne State University

Lecture Topic: "The Hmong in Their Linguistic Context in Asia: Relatives, Neighbors, and Possible

When: Noon, Monday, Feb. 28

Where: 105 Scott Hall, University of Minnesota, 72 Pleasant Street SE Minneapolis, MN 55455

This event is co-sponsored by the Hmong Resource Center at the Hmong Cultural Center. I strongly
encourage you to attend. This is a chance to hear about some groundbreaking new research into the
linguistic connections/differences between Hmong and other groups classified as part of the "Miao"
Nationality in China (i.e. Hmu, A Hmao etc.) and what recent linguistic research shows about the possible
geographic origins of the Hmong people within China and East Asia, which is one of the central
unresolved questions within the larger realm of Hmong Studies. I also encourage you to read Dr. Ratliff's
chapter on related research which is included in the new Hmong/Miao in Asia compilation (University of
Washington Press). We have it in the Hmong Resource Center.

Thank you,

Mark E. Pfeifer (Hmong Resource Center)

===== Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Director, Hmong Resource Center, Hmong Cultural Center

995 University Avenue, Suite 214

Saint Paul, MN 55104-4796

Phone: 651-917-9937 Fax: 651-917-9978