The Hmong Resource Center is one of the most comprehensive collections of Hmong-related books, academic
studies, articles, and multimedia materials in the U.S.

The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9
AM – 6 PM. Most of the items in the Resource Center may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of one
week. A photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite
214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Online Resource Center Catalog:

Hmong Resource Center Director: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD; Hmong Cultural Center Executive Director: Txong Pao


The Resource Center has recently received a $4,000 Humanities Network grant from the Minnesota Humanities
Commission. This grant was made possible by support the Humanities Commission receives from the National
Endowment for the Humanities and the Minnesota State Legislature. The Hmong Cultural Center thanks the
Humanities Commission for its continuing important support for the mission of our Resource Center in promoting
cross-cultural awareness and understanding among and between Hmong and non-Hmong.

Other funding supporters of the Hmong Resource Center include the New York and Vermont-based Freeman
Foundation, the Bush Foundation, the 3M Foundation, the Pinewood Trust of the HRK Foundation and the MAP
for Nonprofit’s Technology Partnership Fund supported by the Saint Paul Companies, Inc. Foundation and the
ADC Foundation.


January 2003 was a very busy month as the Resource Center had many visitors. Recent Resource Center
visitors have included:

7 Faculty and researchers from various disciplines who are members of the Asian American Studies Initiative at
the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. These faculty included Professor Bruce Downing, Professor Erika Lee,
Professor Josephine Lee, Professor Rich Lee and Professor Doug Hartmann. The Asian American Studies
Initiative Group received an extensive tour of the Hmong Resource Center and the cultural center.

9 Students from Professor Chris Chiappari’s Sociology class at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. The
students were touring community organizations as part of an intensive January course related to the immigrant
communities in the Twin Cities.

12 Students from Professor Philip Stoltzfus’s Religion Class at St. Olaf College. The students visited the
Resource Center and the Hmong Cultural Center to learn about traditional Hmong religion.

13 International Management MBA Students from Professor Theresa Bailey’s Intercultural Communication class
at the University of Saint Thomas. These graduate students visited as part of a day spent visiting immigrant
community institutions in the Twin Cities.

25 volunteers and staff from the Americorps programs at the Twin Cities Habitat for Humanity and Project for
Pride in Living in Minneapolis received a tour and participated in an activity related to Hmong history and culture.

A total of 5 residents and staff from Forever Home, an assisted living care facility in Saint Paul, visited for a tour.

Lee Pao Xiong, Michael Yang, and Dayne Walling from the Urban Coalition toured the Resource Center and
cultural center. Dayne Walling also brought by a group of 10 photography students from Metropolitan State
University in Saint Paul who are working on an Urban Coalition-sponsored photography project in Twin Cities
immigrant communities.

4 staff from the Metropolitan Community Health Center’s Hmong Mental Health Program used the Resource
Center’s collections for research. These staff are also all graduate students working on Hmong-related theses or
dissertations. Tou Pao Lor is a graduate student at Minnesota State University, Mankato; Piaj Yang is a graduate
student at Minnesota State University, Mankato; Joualery Moua is a graduate student at Concordia University,
Saint Paul, and Eleanor Field, the Hmong Mental Health Program Coordinator, is also a doctoral student at Saint
Mary’s University of Minnesota.

Yong Ly from Phalen Lake Elementary School in Saint Paul used the Resource Center collections as part of an
initiative to develop a Hmong language and culture curriculum to be implemented at the school this spring.

Chou Chang, assistant principal at Hazel Park Middle School in Saint Paul visited to use the Resource Center’s
collections of dissertations and academic articles for his PhD dissertation related to the functions of the Hmong
18-Clan system.

Educational orientation activity sessions related to Hmong-related resources and Hmong history and culture are
available for interested groups. To schedule a group visit, please call the Hmong Cultural Center at 651-917-


The online Hmong Hall of Fame on the Hmong Cultural Center’s website includes biographical profiles of more
than 50 Hmong women and men. The Hmong Hall of Fame is located at: http://www.hmongcenter.

The cultural center continues to welcome nominations of individuals who could be included in the Hall of Fame. If
available, biographical information and scanned pictures of nominated individuals are also very much welcome.
The Hmong Cultural Center may be contacted at or 651-917-9937


"Annotated Bibliography of Hmong-Related Works: 1996-2002" is a 50-Page fully annotated bibliography of
Hmong-related works published between 1996 and 2002. This volume is the first annotated bibliography of
Hmong-related works published in more than 5 years and has recently been updated to include additional
published works from 2001 and 2002. Full reference information and descriptive summaries are provided for
nearly 350 Hmong-related academic journal articles, theses and dissertations, books and videos. Works are
organized into topical subcategories including Dictionaries, Bibliographies and Reference Works; Hmong in Asia;
Hmong Culture; The War in Laos and Refugee Resettlement Issues; Hmong Families, Parenting and Gender
Roles; Settlement Patterns and Socioeconomic Incorporation; Cultural Adaptation; Race Relations, The Law, and
Political Incorporation; Literacy and Educational Adaptation; Physical and Mental Health; Personal Narratives of
Hmong Americans; Juvenile Literature and Curriculum Materials for Teachers; Fiction; Videos and Internet

For more information about obtaining this bibliography visit:


Books and Theses

Crevier, Melissa. (2002). Hmong Students at UW-Stout: Factors Influencing Attendance and Retention in a Post
Secondary Institution. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. This study examines factors that assisted
Hmong-origin students in deciding to attend the University of Wisconsin-Stout. Through the use of survey data,
the work identifies personal experiences, secondary trends, specific educational programs, the role of family
members and clans, the effects of Wisconsin Works, a welfare reform program, and other factors that assisted
Hmong students in initiating and completing a post-secondary degree at this educational institution.

Faruque, Cathleen Jo. (2002). Migration of Hmong to the Midwestern United States. Lanham, Maryland:
University Press of America. A recently published book that provides an in-depth look at the adaptation of the
small Hmong community in Rochester, Minnesota. Chapters of the primarily qualitative work assess the
demographics of the Hmong community in Rochester (Hmong dialect spoken, years of U.S. and Rochester
residence, neighborhood of residence, housing tenure, income and job distribution); the effect non-voluntary
migration has had on acculturation levels as measured by cultural awareness and ethnic loyalty of the Hmong in
Rochester; how Hmong residents perceive the Anglo-culture; how Hmong have adjusted to the social system in
the U.S., and the extent to which the Hmong in Rochester retain their traditions within the U.S. Using interview
data in these chapters, the researcher discusses a range of issues including intergenerational value differences
in the community, prejudice experienced from the mainstream society in Rochester and the differing experiences
of Hmong families who have maintained the traditional Hmong religion as opposed to those who have adopted
Christian practices.

Cultural Relics Publishing House. (2000). Silver Ornaments of Miao Nationality. Beijing: Cultural Relics Publishing
House. A Chinese-language work with an extensive catalog of color photographs documenting the jewelry and
other ornaments of the Hmong minority in China.

Xiong, Joshua S. (1999). Hmong Housing in Transition From Private to Public and to Homeownership: Obstacles
to Housing among the Hmong in the United States. M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato. This study
was compiled from housing survey data derived from interviews conducted with Hmong families in the Minneapolis-
St. Paul region. The work begins with a description of Hmong housing in China, Laos and Thailand. The author
then examines the experiences and needs of Hmong families in public housing and the private housing market in

Bromaghim, Jane E. (1998). Reproductive Health Issues of Hmong and Somali Women. M.S. Thesis, Minnesota
State University, Mankato. This study conducted in Minneapolis-St. Paul discusses childbearing beliefs, fertility
and contraception practices, prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes as well as reproductive health care barriers
experienced by Hmong and Somali populations. The work also provides recommendations for health care
professionals and suggestions for future research and programming pertaining to the reproductive health of
Hmong and Somali women.

Vang, Teng Z. (1995). Hmong Business Development in the Twin Cities, Minnesota. M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State
University, Mankato. This work assesses Hmong entrepreneurialism and business development in the
Minneapolis-St. Paul region. The author describes the distribution of Hmong businesses by type, the
demographic characteristics of business owners, strategies for successful business ownership and Hmong
consumer opinions about positive and negative aspects of Hmong businesses in the community. The study’s
findings are based on questionnaire data collected from 42 Hmong business owners and 76 customers of Hmong

Xiong, Lue. (1990). Hmong Role and Motivation in Support of the French and Americans in the Laotian Civil War,
1945-1975. M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato. This work assesses the role and motivation of the
Hmong for their military involvement with the French and the Americans in the Laotian Civil War. The researcher
collected and synthesized data from published materials, government documents, and personal interviews with
former Hmong soldiers as well as scholars. The author concludes that the Hmong allied closely with the French
and later with the Americans primarily because they needed their protection against the Communists as well as
the internal social and political oppression of the ethnic Lao.

Yang, Pao Kong. (1990). Hmong Involvement in Wars in Laos Before and After 1975. M.A. Thesis, Minnesota
State University, Mankato. This work examines the historical, social, and political context of Hmong participation in
wars throughout the 20th century in Laos to assess the values and political goals Hmong were attempting to
achieve with this involvement. Chapters of the work assess Hmong early settlement in Laos in the 19th century,
factions of Hmong clans and political movements in the War against Lao Issara in 1945-46 and the War of 1952-
54, Hmong involvement in the Laotian Civil War during the Vietnam War era and Hmong Resistance in Laos after

Academic Journal Articles

Foo, Lora Jo. (2002). “Hmong Women in the U.S.: Changing a Patriarchal Culture.” In Asian American Women:
Issues, Concerns, and Responsive Human and Civil Rights Advocacy. Ed. Lora Jo Foo. New York: The Ford
Foundation, pp. 145-161. A recently published advocacy article that discusses the status of Hmong women in
Hmong society and Hmong-American communities. The work assesses challenges in the community to effective
responses to improve the status of Hmong women, generational differences in addressing gender-related issues,
and evolving Hmong American feminist approaches. The latter portion of the article describes the work of three
Minnesota-based Hmong organizations – the Women’s Association of Hmong and Lao, the Hmong Women’s
Action Team and the Association for the Advancement of Hmong Women in Minnesota – as well as the
Sacramento-based Hmong Women’s Heritage Association and Washington D.C.-based Hmong National
Development to address the concerns of Hmong-American women and provide programs that meet their specific

Koltyk, Jo Ann. (2002). “The Hmong in Wisconsin.” In Endangered Peoples of North America: Struggles to Survive
and Thrive. Ed. Tom Greaves. Westport, CT: The Greenwood Press, pp. 195-211. This article assesses the
adaptation of Hmong families in Wausau, Wisconsin. The work assesses demographic trends in the community,
socioeconomic conditions over the past 20 years, initial language and cultural barriers, the maintenance of
kinship connections, community use of technology, the continuation of traditional subsistence activities and the
growth of entrepreneurship as well as homeownership in the community over the past 2 decades.

Tungittiplakorn, Waranoot and Phillip Dearden. (2002). “Biodiversity Conservation and Cash Crop Development
in Northern Thailand.” In Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 2007-2025. This study examines some of the
implications of increased cash cropping for wildlife in the highlands of Northern Thailand. Through in-depth study
of two Hmong villages and interviews in several others, the researchers collected information regarding cash crop
adoption patterns, comparisons between various cash crops in terms of inputs and yields and trends in land use
change and hunting behavior. The researchers’ results show that newer cash crops, cabbages and carnations in
particular, have greater potential ability to support larger human populations per land unit area and thereby
reduce pressure for increased land clearing. However, strong concerns remain regarding the chemical inputs
used on these crops. It was also observed that since the adoption of cash cropping, hunting frequency among
Hmong villagers has declined.


The Hmong Cultural Center is very pleased to welcome Cheng Vang back as a Qeej music instructor.

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Qeej music troupe recently performed at a multicultural event sponsored by the
Northwest Hennepin County School Integration District in Brooklyn Park, MN.

Looking for some traditional Hmong culture to enliven your community event this Winter? The Hmong Cultural
Center’s Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) and Traditional Dance troupes are available to perform for a fee.
Persons interested in scheduling performances may call Meng Vang (Qeej) or Yer Lo (Dance) at the cultural

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Youth Arts Programs are supported by grants from the Wilder Foundation’s
Frogtown’s Leap Forward for Children, the Best Buy Children’s Foundation, the Grotto Foundation and the
COMPAS/Medtronic Community Arts Program


The Cultural Center’s Citizenship Teacher Mai Tong Cha recently participated in a forum with Hmong National
Development and the INS in Washington D.C. to develop a standardized set of translated citizenship exam
questions in the RPA (Romanized) script of Hmong.

Now is a good time to take a citizenship class and begin the process of applying for U.S. citizenship. The
application fee for U.S. citizenship has been lowered from $310 to $238.

The Hmong Cultural Center is currently accepting enrollment for its citizenship and functional English classes.
There are openings in the English Language Citizenship Classes offered Monday through Thursday from 10:00
AM to 12 Noon and the Hmong Language classes held Tuesday through Thursday 1:00-4:00 P.M. For more
information call Mai Tong Cha at the cultural center (651-917-9937).

Need information about the citizenship process, study guides or application forms? Extensive citizenship-related
information is available on the Hmong Cultural Center website at The citizenship section of
the website includes examples of typical citizenship interview questions, as well as 100 sample citizenship exam
questions in both the English and Hmong languages. Up-to-date information is also provided about eligibility and
requirements pertaining to the Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act of 2000.

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Citizenship and Functional English Program is a member of the federally and state
funded Saint Paul Community Literacy Consortium (SPCLC). The cultural center’s citizenship program for adult
refugees is also supported by a grant from the New Americans Collaborative of the Wilder Foundation.