The Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from
10 AM – 6 PM. Most of the items in the Resource Centre may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of
one week. A photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Centre is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite
214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Website:
Contact: Mark Pfeifer


The Hmong Cultural Center would like to thank our community and foundation supporters for their support in
2001. Thanks to this generous assistance, the Resource Centre was able to significantly expand its collections
and provide services to a rapidly growing number of interested individuals, groups, and institutions. 913
persons visited the Resource Centre in 2001 compared to 339 in all of 2000. In 2001, 194 Resource Centre
users checked out a total of 501 Hmong-related items.

The Resource Centre reached an increasingly diverse range of users over the past year. In 2001, 60% of the
913 users were Hmong and 40% were non-Hmong. Just under 1/3 of all users in 2001 were under 18 and 15%
of visitors came from outside the immediate Twin Cities area.


The Freeman Foundation has awarded a $25,000 grant to the Hmong Cultural Center for its Hmong Resource
Centre to be used in 2002. The grant was announced following the meeting of the Freeman Foundation’s
trustees in late December 2001. A family foundation based in New York City and Vermont, the Freeman
Foundation is one of the largest philanthropic supporters of Asian Studies academic programs and Asian
Studies libraries in both North America and the Pacific Rim region. The foundation strives to support programs
that teach Americans about the peoples and cultures of East and Southeast Asia while facilitating cultural
exchange. With this grant, the Freeman Foundation has provided important recognition and support to the
growing academic field of Hmong Studies and to the Hmong Cultural Center’s mission of providing resources
that promote cross-cultural awareness and understanding between Hmong and non-Hmong persons.

The Resource Centre has also recently received generous commitments of funding support for 2002 from the
Pinewood Trust of the HRK Foundation, the Marbrook Foundation, and the Minnesota Humanities Commission.


U.S. Census 2000: Trends in Hmong Population Across the Regions of the United States. Research Report. St.
Paul, MN: Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural Center. 17 pages. This study is the most
comprehensive that has been published to date related to 2000 Hmong population trends in the census. The
report will be of particular interest to academic researchers, libraries, and service providers that work with the
Hmong.The report is available for $5 at the cultural center or $7 by mail, this latter cost includes shipping and
handling expenses.

Copies may be ordered by mailing or dropping off a check at the Hmong Cultural Center 995 University Avenue,
Suite 214, Saint Paul, MN 55104. For more information about ordering the report please call or e-mail Mark
Pfeifer. 651-917-9937 or 651-209-6351 (Voicemail),


Books and PhD Dissertations

Anderson, K.E. (2001). The Meaning of Giving in the Hmong Community. MA Thesis. Saint Mary’s University of
Minnesota. This study examines charitable giving among the Hmong community in the Minneapolis-St. Paul
region. The purpose of the research was to gain a better understanding of the charitable giving that is
occurring in the Hmong community and to assist interested individuals in developing better methods to quantify
the contributions made by community members. The study explores the terminology, meaning, and expressions
of giving used by Hmong individuals. The author found that the Hmong community is actively engaged in
philanthropy on a daily basis. Yet, due to cultural differences between traditional Hmong and mainstream
American society the members of the Hmong community are often unable to effectively describe the giving that
occurs using existing American terminology. The Hmong words most frequently used to describe giving and the
meaning of these words within a Hmong cultural context were identified. Though the Hmong words and
meanings are understood across generations in the Hmong community, significant changes were found to be
occurring in motivations for giving in different generations. The Hmong Resource Centre thanks the author for
her donation of this item.

Keats, E.J. (2001). Peter’s Chair//Peter Lub Rooj. Bilingual English/Hmong Edition. St. Paul: Minnesota
Humanities Commission. ISBN #: 1-931016070. Popular children’s story with text provided in English and both
the White and Green Hmong dialects. The Hmong Resource Centre thanks the Minnesota Humanities
Commission’s Motheread/Fatheread Program for the donation of this item.

Paj Ntaub Voice. (2001). Paj Ntaub Voice: Visions for the Future. Volume 8, Number 1. St. Paul: Paj Ntaub
Voice. Summer 2001 edition of a literary journal featuring both Hmong and English language works composed
by Hmong-origin authors. The Hmong Resource Centre thanks Paj Ntaub Voice for the donation of this item.

Carroll, S.D. (1996). Resiliency and the Hmong child growing up in Fresno: An ethnographic narrative with
drawings, PsyD dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno. This dissertation is an
ethnographic exploration of the thoughts, feelings and resiliency of 9 Hmong children growing up in Fresno,
California. Through drawings, the children illustrate and describe coming to America, going to school, relating to
their families and friends, playing after school, celebrating holidays, going to church, as well as their ideas
about love and marriage, their spiritual understandings, their fears of spiritual and human dangers, and their
hopes for the future.

Wisconsin Geriatric Education Center. (1995). Blending Cultures: Health Care for Hmong Elderly. Conference
Proceedings, October 20, 1995. Milwaukee, WI: Wisconsin Geriatric Education Center, Marquette University.
Publication with a summary of the proceedings of a conference that focused on health care-related issues
among the Hmong elderly population. Brief sections describe seminars related to Hmong history and culture,
barriers to Hmong elderly accessing health care, medical management of the Hmong elderly, blending
traditional healing practices with modern medicine, long term care decisions, mental health issues among the
Hmong elderly and tools for education. The Hmong Resource Centre thanks Ms. Kay Anderson for her donation
of this item.

Wisconsin Geriatric Education Center. (1995). Enhancing the Provision of Care for Hmong Elderly. Conference
Proceedings, June 2, 1995. Milwaukee, WI: Wisconsin Geriatric Education Center, Marquette University.
Publication with a description of the deliberations of a conference that focused on improving the provision of
health care for Hmong elderly individuals. Brief sections describe seminars related to Hmong culture, traditions,
and beliefs, use of interpreters, psychosocial aspects of adjustment among the Hmong elderly, and cultural
considerations in the diagnosis, treatment and education of Hmong elderly with diabetes. The Hmong Resource
Centre thanks Ms. Kay Anderson for her donation of this item.

Academic Journal Articles

Levy, M.M. (2000). “What if your fairy godmother were an ox? The many Cinderellas of Southeast Asia.” Lion
and the Unicorn. 24(2): 173-187. In this article, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Lao, and Hmong versions of
Cinderella that have been adapted by contemporary authors are compared and contrasted. Among the works
analyzed are a popular children’s story adaptation of a Hmong folktale with strong parallels to the classic
Cinderella narrative.

Rice, P.L. (2000). Baby, souls, name and health: traditional customs for a newborn infant among the Hmong in
Melbourne.” Early Human Development. 57(3): 189-203. This paper discusses childrearing beliefs and
practices in Hmong culture. The author shows how the practices and beliefs associated with the birth process
and newborn children tie Hmong-origin persons to not only their family and Hmong society but also their
perceptions of the supernatural world. The research used for the article was conducted through interviews with
27 Hmong women residing in Melbourne, Australia.

Hendricks, S.H and N.N. Kari. (1999). "Clothing and citizenship: A case study in community-based learning."
Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 91(2), 62-65. Article discusses practical and pedagogical lessons
learned through a collaborative partnership in St. Paul, MN between Hmong citizenship learners and college
students. In this non-traditional community-centered class, the non-Hmong college students helped tutor the
citizenship learners for the citizenship exam while also learning the definitions Hmong attach to freedom and the
concept of citizenship. At the same time, the Hmong citizen learners taught the college students about
traditional Hmong embroidery techniques for making clothing.

Olson, M.C. (1999). "'The heart still beat, but the brain doesn't answer:' Perception and experience of old-age
dementia in the Milwaukee Hmong community." Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 20(1), 85-95. This study
looks at perceptions and experiences of old-age dementia in the Hmong community of Milwaukee, WI. The
author observed that most Hmong perceived dementia to be a natural part of the life cycle rather than as a
devastating disease that robs people of their autonomy. Individuals with dementia were usually cared for in their
son’s homes. Nursing home placement for advanced cases of dementia was only seen as acceptable if
sanctioned by the entire family. The research was collected from interviews with ten Hmong who held formal or
informal positions of authority in the Milwaukee Hmong community.

Hildebrand, J. (1998). "Coming home: Hunting squirrels and tigers with the Hmong." Harper's Magazine, 297
(1781), 72-79. This article describes the non-Hmong author’s experiences hunting with Hmong-Americans in
Wisconsin. Much of the piece also discusses Hmong-American political involvement and local electoral success
in the modestly sized city of Eau Claire located in West-Central Wisconsin.

Beyrer, C. et. al. (1997). “Widely varying HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among the ethnic minority peoples
of northern Thailand.” AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV. 9(4): 427-439. This
study compares HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, and social and sexual norms among nine ethnic minority groups
in Northern Thailand including the Hmong. Among the sample, HIV infection status was determined and risks for
HIV infection status were estimated. HIV rates, social norms and sexual behavior varied considerably among the
ethnic groups. Hmong respondents were found to have lower rates of infection compared to those from some
other groups including the Shan, Akha and Yao. The authors suggest prevention needs to target these
communities in particular.

Vawter, D.E. & B. Babbitt. (1997). Hospice care for terminally ill Hmong patients. A good cultural fit? Minnesota
Medicine, 80(11), 42-44. This short article assesses the appropriateness of hospice care for Hmong patients.
The authors discuss common health beliefs shared by Hmong patients and hospice staff, as well as divergent
health-related beliefs held by these two groups. Much of the focus of this portion of the paper pertains to
differing Hmong and mainstream health providers views of what constitutes a “good” or “bad” death. The
authors conclude that there is a partial fit between hospice care and traditional Hmong beliefs, but that hospice
staff may need to modify some of their practices to achieve their goal of providing respectful and
compassionate care to all patients including persons of Hmong origin.

Gervais, K.G. (1996). Providing culturally competent health care to Hmong patients. Minnesota Medicine, 79(5),
49. This short paper summarizes the deliberations of a conference held in 1995 that addressed Hmong views
related to critical health care. Sections of the article summarize speaker presentations about building
relationships between Hmong patients and non-Hmong health care providers, basic Hmong beliefs about health,
strategies to successfully communicate with Hmong patients, and ways in which medical staff may work to
accommodate Hmong decision-making practices.


The Hmong Cultural Center is currently accepting enrollment for its citizenship and functional English classes.
English Language Classes are offered Monday through Friday from 10:00 AM to 12 Noon and Monday and
Tuesdays from 4:30-6:30 PM. Hmong Language Classes are offered Monday through Wednesday from 1:00-4:
00 P.M.

Now is a good time to file for citizenship. Starting February 19, 2002, the N-400 application fee will increase from
$225 to $260. Fingerprint fees will increase from $25 to $50. Qualified applicants may still file for the fee waiver.
Congress has also extended the Hmong Veterans’ Act for another 18 months. Hmong veterans who qualify
study for a set of 25 questions instead of 100. The questions are administered in the language of the veteran’s
choice. Interested individuals may contact Tong Vang at the Hmong Cultural Center for enrollment information.
Phone: 651-917-9937.


The Hmong Cultural Center’s Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) and Traditional Dance troupes are available to
perform for a fee. Persons interested in scheduling performances may call Meng Vang (Qeej) or Yer Lo
(Dance) at the cultural center.


The Hmong Resource Centre would like to extend its sincere gratitude to its supporters. Foundations and
grantmaking agencies currently providing financial support to the Resource Centre include the Pinewood Trust
of the HRK Foundation, the Bush Foundation, the Freeman Foundation, the 3M Foundation, the Marbrook
Foundation, the Medtronic Foundation and the Minnesota Humanities Commission in cooperation with the
National Endowment for the Humanities and the Minnesota State Legislature. The Resource Centre would also
like to thank all of the individuals who have joined the Cultural Center as member-supporters. A complete list of
these individuals is posted at Individuals wishing to become member/supporters or
financial contributors may drop by the Hmong Cultural Center or fill out the form on the website and mail it in.
Membership is only $5 for one year.