The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9
AM – 6 PM. Most of the items in the Resource Center may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of one
week. A photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite
214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Website:

Hmong Resource Center Director: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD; Hmong Cultural Center Executive Director: Txong Pao Lee


The Resource Center has recently received a $25,000 grant for 2003 operations from the Vermont and New York-
based Freeman Foundation. The Freeman Foundation is one of the leading national and international
philanthropic supporters of Asian Studies education programs and Asian Studies libraries. The Hmong Cultural
Center is very grateful for the Freeman Foundation’s continuing support of our unique Resource Center.

The Pinewood Trust of the HRK Foundation has recently provided a $10,000 grant to the Hmong Cultural Center
for general operating in 2003. The cultural center would like to extend a special thank you to the Pinewood Trust
for its important support over the past several years. HRK’s Pinewood Trust provided the initial funds to start the
Hmong Resource Center in 1998. In the past few years, thousands of on-site and on-line students and
professionals have learned more about the Hmong people and their culture as a result of this support and the
Resource Center has developed into a one-of a-kind collection of books, articles, dissertations and multimedia
materials that attracts visitors from throughout the Midwest and the United States.

The Resource Center is also pleased to announce that it has received a grant of $1,300 from the MAP for
Nonprofit’s Technology Partnership Fund supported by the Saint Paul Companies, Inc. and the ADC Foundation.
This funding will help the center upgrade its software and computers in 2003.


Recent Resource Center visitors have included:

Shoua Yang, a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science at Northern Illinois University in Dekalb,
Illinois. Shoua was a recipient of one of the Resource Center’s 2002 Travel Grants. While at the center in
December he used the Resource Center collections to support his dissertation research, which is focused upon
the dynamics of Hmong-American organizations, Hmong politics and Hmong leadership.

Lucie Passus, an undergraduate student at Carleton College (MN) who is working on an honor’s thesis related to
Hmong-American politics.

Students from Mankato (MN) East High School who visited as part of a field trip to explore the cultural diversity of
Minneapolis-St. Paul


The online Hmong Hall of Fame on the Hmong Cultural Center’s website has expanded to include biographical
profiles of more than 50 Hmong women and men over the past month. The Hmong Hall of Fame is located at: http:

The goals of the Hmong Hall of Fame project are two-fold: to provide examples of role models to the many Hmong
youth all over the United States who visit the HCC website and to educate the broader community about the
considerable achievements and contributions of the Hmong diaspora in the U.S. and around the world. Volunteers
continue to work at the cultural center on short profiles and biographies of notable Hmong women and men from
all walks of life. The cultural center very much welcomes nominations of individuals who could be included in the
Hall of Fame. If available, biographical information and scanned pictures of nominated individuals are also very
much welcome. The Hmong Cultural Center may be contacted at or 651-917-9937


After China, the most Hmong in the world (about 800,000) live in Vietnam, primarily in the Northern region of the

The Hmong Cultural Center has recently added to its website a gallery of pictures taken of Hmong in Vietnam over
the past few years. The pictures include several photos taken of Hmong in villages in the Central Highlands area
and snapshots of Hmong vendors and performers in Sa Pa, Vietnam. The photos of village life include pictures of
children playing with water buffalos, clothing, residential structures, and crops grown by Hmong.

The pictures in this gallery may be viewed at:

The cultural center thanks T.X. Vuong, a researcher in Vietnam, for donating these pictures for viewing on our


The Hmong Studies Journal invites article submissions for its Spring 2003 issue.

The Hmong Studies Journal is a unique and established peer-reviewed Internet-based academic publication
devoted to the scholarly discussion of Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the
Hmong experience in the U.S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 5 online
issues since 1996. The Journal’s website is located at:

Hmong Studies-related articles from all disciplinary backgrounds and perspectives are welcome. Works
considered for submission must consist of original research and should not have been previously published
elsewhere. Articles for submission review should be sent on diskette or by e-mail attachment to Mark E. Pfeifer,
PhD Director, Hmong Resource Centre, Hmong Cultural Center, 995 University Avenue, Suite 214, Saint Paul, MN
55104, e-mail: or to Anne Frank, Librarian, Southeast Asian Archive, University of
California, Irvine, The UCI Libraries, P.O. Box 19557, Irvine, CA 92623-9557, e-mail:
Submission Deadline Date: Jan. 15, 2003


"Annotated Bibliography of Hmong-Related Works: 1996-2002" is a 50-Page fully annotated bibliography of
Hmong-related works published between 1996 and 2002. This volume is the first annotated bibliography of Hmong-
related works published in more than 5 years and has recently been updated to include additional published works
from 2001 and 2002. Full reference information and descriptive summaries are provided for nearly 350 Hmong-
related academic journal articles, theses and dissertations, books and videos. Works are organized into topical
subcategories including Dictionaries, Bibliographies and Reference Works; Hmong in Asia; Hmong Culture; The
War in Laos and Refugee Resettlement Issues; Hmong Families, Parenting and Gender Roles; Settlement
Patterns and Socioeconomic Incorporation; Cultural Adaptation; Race Relations, The Law, and Political
Incorporation; Literacy and Educational Adaptation; Physical and Mental Health; Personal Narratives of Hmong
Americans; Juvenile Literature and Curriculum Materials for Teachers; Fiction; Videos and Internet Resources.


Books and Theses

Omoto, Susan. (2002). Hmong Milestones in America: Citizens in a New World. Evanston, IL: John Gordon Burke
Publishers. This recently published work provides basic information about the history, daily life, and culture of the
Hmong people. It also includes biographical profiles of five notable Hmong: Dr. Xoua Thao, the first Hmong medical
doctor; Ying Vang, the first Hmong Catholic priest in the United States; Choua Lee, the first elected Hmong official
in the U.S., Rev. Bea Vue-Benson, the first Hmong Lutheran Minister and Christopher Thao, the first Hmong
Attorney in the U.S.

Garrity, Collette A. McGeary. (2002). Hmong women in a nontraditional college: The replacement of fragmented
backgrounds with American individualism. EdD Dissertation, University of Saint Thomas. This Phd study presents
the stories of four, first-generation Hmong women who attend a small American, for-profit college. The research
focuses on these women's experiences in American society and in the college classes they attend. Issues
addressed in the study include how Hmong women express resistance to barriers in Hmong society, including their
hopes for careers and how they are raising their children, how Hmong women express resistance to American
societal barriers through their choices to work in Hmong supported jobs and attend nontraditional colleges, the
evolution of their identities, resulting in both segmentation and isolation, and the effects of American capitalism on
the development of their individualism, including their seemingly contradictory expressions of becoming
Americanized and remaining Hmong. The roles of nontraditional colleges to accommodate and foster educational
goals for Hmong women are also examined.

Schanche, Don A. (1970). Mister Pop: The adventures of a peaceful man in a small war. New York: David McKay
Company, Inc. This out of print work presents a biography of Edgar Buell “Mister Pop”. Buell began working with
the Hmong in Laos in 1960. He set up schools and medical training facilities and also helped organize the 5,000
soldier Hmong army that fought the North Vietnamese and Pathet Lao. The volume includes several photographs
of Buell with Hmong in Laos in the early to mid 1960s.

Academic Journal Articles

Liamputtong, Pranee. (2002). “Childrearing Practices and Child Health Among the Hmong in Australia: Implications
for Health Services.” International Journal of Health Services 32(4): 817-836. This study examines cultural beliefs
and traditions related to childrearing and child health among Hmong in Melbourne, Australia. The author describes
traditional Hmong beliefs and practices including: taking notice of the birth date and time, placing a silver necklace
on the newborn, not praising the newborn, not taking the infant out for the first 30 days, breastfeeding, the infant’s
sharing a bed with the parents and a soul-calling ceremony on the third day after birth. The author observed that
all Hmong mothers follow cultural beliefs and practices to prevent the ill-health or death of their newborn infants,
but that some aspects of these practices have been modified to suit the new living environment in Australia. The
researcher suggests that health care professionals need to acknowledge the different ways of caring for a child
among the Hmong so as to avoid misunderstandings and to provide sensitive care. She also notes that Hmong
beliefs and practices have implications for health promotion campaigns and may serve as a valuable source of
ideas in efforts to promote infant health and reduce infant deaths in the general population of Australia and

Plotnikoff, Gregory A.; Numerich, Charles; Wu, Chu; Yang, Deu; and Phua Xiong. (2002). “Hmong Shamanism:
Animist Spiritual Healing in Minnesota.” Minnesota Medicine 85(6): 29-34. This article provides an overview of the
practice of Hmong Shamanism. The researchers interviewed 11 Hmong shamans and 32 non-randomly selected
Hmong patients. The shamans described their spiritual perspectives, training and skills and professional activities.
The Hmong patients described their beliefs about spiritual healing and health care. The authors observed that
their interviews suggest that Shamanism is considered an effective form of care by many Hmong, irregardless of
their age, gender, or level of acculturation. The work also includes summary charts of Hmong healing practices
and concludes with a roster of questions designed to assist practicing physicians in accessing the assumptions
and beliefs of their Hmong patients so that they may provide efficient, effective and satisfactory care.

Tapp, Nicholas. (2002). “Cultural Accommodations in Southwest China: The ‘Han Miao’ and Problems in the
Ethnography of the Hmong.” Asian Folklore Studies 61: 77-104. This study assesses some key issues in
ethnography among Hmong populations in Southwest China. The author discusses why color terms are used for
some groups of Hmong as well as subdivisions within these color categories. Also examined are the historical and
contemporary relationships between the Hmong, the Han majority and the Yi minority. The author observes a
strong Hmong or “Miao” minority identity co-existing with the borrowing and sharing of cultural elements with the
other groups.

Thao, Paoze. (2002). “The Current State of Hmong Students in California.” Report for the Office of the Secretary
for Education, State of California. This study provides an overview of educational needs and progress among
Hmong-origin students in California school districts. The researcher provides a census of Hmong students across
California districts and briefly compares their characteristics with those found in other states with large Hmong
populations including Minnesota and Wisconsin. The author observed that the proportion of Hmong Fluent English
proficient (FEP) vs. Hmong/ limited English proficient (LEP) students increased slightly between 1993 and 2001 in
the California schools. Results of a survey of Hmong parents are also provided. The survey showed that the
parents were concerned about attendance and gang issues as well as the school systems’ general lack of
understanding of Hmong culture and the lack of Hmong literature, history, and culture-related materials in the
school curriculums.

Wathum-Ocama John C. and Susan Rose. (2002). “Hmong Immigrants Views on the Education of their Deaf and
Hard of Hearing Children.” American Annals of the Deaf 147(3): 44-53. This study investigates the attitudes,
perceptions and feelings of the parents of 7 Hmong families that include a deaf or hard of hearing child attending
a U.S. public school. The researchers’ findings indicate that many Hmong parents value education and want to be
involved in their deaf or hard of hearing child’s learning. However, many of the parents in the school did not know
how to become involved, and needed the support of the school. Although they accepted their deaf or hard of
hearing children unconditionally, several of the parents had lower academic expectations of that child than of their
hearing children. Most of the parents reported limited knowledge of the policies, procedures, practices, and
organizational structures of special education, and all cited communication barriers as impediments to involvement
in their child’s education.

Giang, Ho Ly (2000). “The Food Culture of the Hmong.” Vietnam Social Sciences 6(80): 96-110. This article from
a Vietnamese academic journal describes the food customs, food production, dishes and cooking methods,
medicinal foods, food preservation methods, drinking and smoking habits as well as social behaviors and taboos
associated with food practiced by Hmong residing in Hoa Binh province of Northwest Vietnam.

Nguyen, Van Minh. (2000). “Agricultural Adaptation of the Hmong in Vietnam.” Vietnam Social Sciences 6(80): 75-
95. This work from a Vietnamese academic journal assesses various aspects of the agricultural adaptation of the
Hmong in Hoa Binh province of Northwest Vietnam over the past several decades. The author discusses changes
in crops grown, the impact of macroeconomic changes in Vietnam, changes in land classification, land use, and
land rights among Hmong in this region, the role of swidden cultivation, and the relevance of social customs and
the family division of labor in Hmong agriculture.


The Hmong Cultural Center’s Dance Troupe performed at the Saint Paul Hmong New Year in November 2002. The
Qeej troupe performed at the Minneapolis Metrodome Hmong New Year in December 2002. Photos of the cultural
center’s participation at the New Year may be viewed here:

It was also recently announced that the Hmong Cultural Center youth programs have been awarded 2003 grants
from both the Best Buy Children’s Foundation and Frogtown’s Leap Forward for Children (Wilder Foundation).
The Hmong Cultural Center thanks the Best Buy Children’s Foundation and Leap Forward for this important
support of the center’s popular after-school cultural and academic-oriented youth programming.

Looking for some traditional Hmong culture to enliven your community event this Winter? The Hmong Cultural
Center’s Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) and Traditional Dance troupes are available to perform for a fee.
Persons interested in scheduling performances may call Meng Vang (Qeej) or Yer Lo (Dance) at the cultural


The cultural center is very pleased to welcome Ron Mazurowski back to teach an evening section of its citizenship
classes starting in January.

Need information about the citizenship process, study guides or application forms? Extensive citizenship-related
information is available on the Hmong Cultural Center website at The citizenship section of
the website includes examples of typical citizenship interview questions, as well as 100 sample citizenship exam
questions in both the English and Hmong languages. Up-to-date information is also provided about eligibility and
requirements pertaining to the Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act of 2000.

The Hmong Cultural Center is currently accepting enrollment for its citizenship and functional English classes.
There are openings in the English Language Citizenship Classes offered Monday through Thursday from 10:00
AM to 12 Noon and those held Tuesday through Thursday 1:00-4:00 P.M. For more information call Mai Tong Cha
at the cultural center (651-917-9937).

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Citizenship and Functional English Program is a member of the federally and state
funded Saint Paul Community Literacy Consortium (SPCLC). The cultural center’s citizenship program for adult
refugees is also supported by a grant from the New Americans Collaborative of the Wilder Foundation