The Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 10
AM – 6 PM. Most of the items in the Resource Centre may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of one
week. A photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Centre is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite 214
in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Website:


Pfeifer, M.E. (2001). U.S. Census 2000: Trends in Hmong Population Across the Regions and Metropolitan Areas
of the United States. Research Report. St. Paul, MN: Hmong Resource Centre of the Hmong Cultural Center. 17
pages. This research paper published by the Hmong Resource Centre presents an overview of the evolution of
Hmong settlement patterns from 1990 to 2000 across the United States. It provides an assessment of several
facets of Hmong residential settlement including national population trends, changes in regional distribution, the
shifting hierarchy of Hmong population centers across the country, the regional distribution of Hmong population
centers, and a discussion of distinctive patterns of Hmong clustering within particular metropolitan areas in given
states and regions. The research report includes Hmong population data for all 50 states and the major regions
and metropolitan areas of the U.S. The study is the most comprehensive that has been published to date related to
2000 Hmong population trends in the census. The report will be of particular interest to academic researchers,
libraries, and service providers that work with the Hmong. The report is available for $5 per copy. Copies may be
ordered by mailing or dropping off a check at the Hmong Cultural Center. For more information about ordering the
report please call or e-mail Mark Pfeifer. Contact information is provided above.


Individuals needing easy access to lists of published works about the Hmong may access 30 different detailed
Hmong subject bibliographies at the Hmong Cultural Center’s website in the “Info about the Hmong” section www.


Around 800 people have visited the Hmong Resource Centre to view its collection and utilize its materials in the
first 10 months of 2001. This number compares to 339 total visitors in 2000. Students, teachers, service
professionals, and community members are among the daily visitors to the Resource Centre.

Recent groups to visit the Resource Centre have included:

A group of teens from an after-school program at the Southeast Asian Community Council in Minneapolis on
October 9, 2001.

Americorps volunteers from Neighborhood House in St. Paul on October 18, 2001.

Graduate students from a cultural diversity in education class at the University of Saint Thomas on October 27,

Graduate students from a cultural diversity in education class at Hamline University on November 5, 2001.

Tours and orientation sessions related to Hmong resources may be scheduled by interested school and community
groups as well as professionals. Groups may schedule tours of the Resource Centre by calling 651-917-9937 or e-


Books and PhD Dissertations

Tapp, N. (2001). The Hmong of China: Context, Agency, and the Imaginary. Sinica Leidensia. V. 51. Brill Academic
Publishers. ISBN: 900412127-7. This 538-page work documents extensive fieldwork conducted by Nicholas Tapp in
a Hmong village in Sichuan, China. The author argues that Hmong culture cannot be understood in isolation from
Chinese culture, which he believes has shaped it to a significant extent. However, he also posits that the Hmong
are also creative participants in fashioning their own collective identity and historical memory from fragments of a
forgotten past. The work includes detailed ethnographic chapters that detail Hmong shamanism, marriage and
courtship practices, as well as family and clan structure. The book also includes numerous photographs taken in
the Hmong village where the research was undertaken.

Xiong, B. (2001). Nine-In-One Grr! Grr!: Bilingual English/Hmong Edition. St. Paul: Minnesota Humanities
Commission. ISBN: 193101610-0. Illustrated children’s story based on a Hmong folktale with text provided in
English and both the White and Green Hmong dialects.

Thoj, L. (2000). English-Hmong Dictionary//Tsevlu Aakiv Hmoob. San Diego, CA: Windsor Associates. No ISBN
Number. English-Hmong dictionary with 31,800 word entries. This work utilizes a special form of the romanized
Hmong script developed by the author to simplify the phonetics of the language.

Tungittiplakorn, W. (1998). Highland cash crop development and biodiversity conservation: The Hmong in Northern
Thailand, PhD dissertation. University of Victoria (Canada). This study explores two interlinked aspects of the
human-environment relationship — cash crop development and biodiversity conservation — by examining the
situations of the Hmong people, the largest traditional pioneer swidden group in the Thai highlands. Cash crop
adoption among the Hmong has occurred in two main ways. The first involves the adoption of low-input upland
crops and a shift to high-input vegetable crops. The second pattern is a direct shift from opium to high-input crops,
particularly cabbage. The author also provides a detailed discussion of Hmong hunting practices and the
relationship between the Hmong and wildlife in Northern Thailand.

Her, M. (1997). A construct validity study of the Values Questionnaire using two divergent divergent groups:
Hmong and White Americans, PhD dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno. This study
examines the construct validity of the Values Questionnaire using Hmong and White Americans, based on their
levels of collectivism and individualism. Subjects included 214 Hmong and 330 White Americans residing in
California. Results indicated that collectivism values 'to be obedient,' 'to respect ancestors,' 'to respect authority,'
and 'to be cooperative' supported the prediction that Hmong subjects would score higher than would White
American subjects on these items, while the collectivism value 'to love and take care of family' was scored in the
opposite direction. Individualism values 'to be independent,' and 'to stick to your beliefs' were scored higher by
White Americans, as predicted, while individualism values 'to have ambition' and 'to have money' scored
contradictory to prediction.

Henry, R.R. (1996). Sweet blood, dry liver: Diabetes and Hmong embodiment in a foreign land, PhD dissertation.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This study examines the daily social practices of St. Paul Hmong
elderly such as eating, talking, physical activity, taking medicine, testing blood sugar, and going to the doctor within
the context of their daily lives in order to outline some basic differences between Hmong elderly and upper- and
middle-class urban-Americans and biomedical practitioners in the construction of experience, person and illness.
The study focuses on the way Hmong elderly with diabetes conceptualize their illness and contrasts these
perceptions with those of the mainstream society.

Howard, K. (1996). Hmong parenting practices in transition: a participatory study. Ed.D. dissertation, University of
San Francisco. This dissertation explores the parenting practices of college-educated young Hmong parents. It
examines the specific areas of parenting practices and the parents' reflections concerning the transmission of their
traditional culture to their children, the external influences on their parenting practices, and their insights into
addressing issues in the community. The study was conducted among 6 college-educated Hmong parents in
Fresno, California.

Academic Journal Articles

Tanjasiri, S.P. et. al. (2001). “Breast cancer screening among Hmong women in California.” Journal of Cancer
Education. 16(1): 50-54. This article examines the incidence of breast cancer screening among Hmong women in
California. The researcher completed one-on-one survey interviews with 201 Hmong women aged 20 years and
older to determine their breast cancer screening behaviors – breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast
examination (CBE), and mammography. Overall, 51% of all respondents had performed BSE. Among respondents
aged 40 or older, 52% had had a CBE and only 30 had had mammography.

Levy, M.M. (2000).”What if your fairy godmother were an ox? The many Cinderellas of Southeast Asia.” Lion and
the Unicorn. 24(2): 173-187. In this article, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Lao, and Hmong versions of Cinderella that
have been adapted by contemporary authors are compared and contrasted. Among the works analyzed are a
popular children’s story adaptation of a Hmong folktale with strong parallels to the classic Cinderella narrative.

Henry R.R. (1999). “Measles, Hmong, and metaphor: Culture change and illness management under conditions of
immigration.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 13(1), 32-50. This paper examines the ways in which a sample of
Hmong families understand measles and how they cared for their children when the disease was contracted. The
study discusses the themes of cyclical time, disease-causing spirits, the natural/supernatural dichotomy, and
agricultural metaphors as applied to disease, as well as the growing adaptation to, use of, and interpretation of
Western medicine by Hmong immigrants. The research was conducted among 19 Hmong families residing in St.
Paul, MN.

Funakawa, S. (1997). “Ecological study on the dynamics of soil organic matter and its related properties in shifting
cultivation systems of Northern Thailand.” Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 43(3): 681-693. In order to analyze the
soil ecological problems involved in the transition from traditional shifting cultivation to more intensive upland
farming, the authors of this paper carried out comparative research on the dynamics of organic matter and its
related properties in soils both in the traditional shifting cultivation systems adopted by Karen people and the more
intensive upland farming practiced by Thai and Hmong people in a region of Northern Thailand.

Lemoine, J. and Eisenbruch, M. (1997). “The practice of the power of healing by the Hmong shamans and the
Cambodian traditional healers of Indochina.” Homme. 37 (144): 69-103. This French language study examines
healing practices of Hmong and Cambodian shamans in Southeast Asia. The authors observe that shamans from
these two cultural groups consider healing and recovery as a holistic phenomenon and offer a unique perspective
on healing. The main contrast between the two systems of healing, according to the researchers, is found in the
inversion of the means used for healing. In the case of the Hmong, a transformation occurs in the Hmong shaman’s
body image, it is by this image that the shaman establishes his power of healing. In the case of the Cambodian
healer, a transformation occurs in the patient’s body image.

Mills, P.K. & Yang, R. (1997). “Cancer incidence in the Hmong of Central California, United States, 1987-1994.”
Cancer Causes and Control, 8(5), 705-712. This study measures the cancer incidence among the Hmong
population living in several Central California communities. Using the resources of the Cancer Registry of Central
California (CRCC), a population-based cancer registry, cancer incidence among persons of Hmong origin was
evaluated by calculating age-adjusted incidence rates as well as by calculating proportional incidence ratios.
Compared with all ethnic groups combined, the author found elevated rates of cancer among the Hmong in the
following sites: nasopharynx, stomach, liver, pancreas, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cervical cancer
rates were lower among the Hmong populations studied. The author posits that the high rates of cancer among
Hmong-origin persons may be partially explained by cultural factors, including an avoidance of Western medical
care and low rates of participation in screening programs.

Nuttall, P. & Flores, F.C. (1997). “Hmong healing practices used for common childhood illnesses.” Pediatric
Nursing, 23(3), 247-251. This study of Hmong healing practices as practiced in Central California describes Hmong
indigenous healing practices typically used for illnesses in children, the purposes of these health care practices,
Hmong beliefs about western medical care, and Hmong views about seeking western pediatric health care. Data
derived from interviews with 21 Hmong parents describes perceptions of illness causation, healing rituals, herbal
remedies and other Hmong health care traditions.


The Hmong Resource Centre would like to extend its sincere gratitude to its supporters. Foundations and
grantmaking agencies currently providing financial support to the Resource Centre include the Pinewood Trust of
the HRK Foundation, the Bush Foundation, the 3M Foundation, the Medtronic Foundation and the Minnesota
Humanities Commission. The Resource Centre would also like to thank all of the individuals who have joined the
Cultural Center as member-supporters. A complete list of these individuals is posted at
Individuals wishing to become member/supporters or financial contributors may drop by the Hmong Cultural Center
or fill out the form on the website and mail it in. Membership is only $5 for one year.