The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9
AM – 6 PM. Many of the items in the Resource Center may be checked out with a photo i.d. for a period of one
week. A photocopier is also available on site.

The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite
214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Online Resource Center Catalog:

Hmong Resource Center Director: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD; Hmong Cultural Center Executive Director: Txong Pao Lee


Funding supporters of the Hmong Resource Center include the New York and Vermont-based Freeman
Foundation, the Bush Foundation, the 3M Foundation, the Pinewood Trust of the HRK Foundation, the Minnesota
Humanities Commission in partnership with the Minnesota State Legislature and the National Endowment for the
Humanities as well as the MAP for Nonprofit’s Technology Partnership Fund supported by the Saint Paul
Companies, Inc. Foundation and the ADC Foundation.


175 people visited and used the Hmong Resource Center in April 2003. Recent visitors to the Resource Center
have included:

Jessica Hanson and Katie Bisson, graduate students in the Second Languages and Cultures Program in the
College of Education at the University of Minnesota. Jessica and Katie were learning about Hmong culture for a
project related to diversity in area school systems.

Shoua Thao, a student from Metropolitan State University. Shoua was researching traditional Hmong agricultural
practices in Southeast Asia for a term paper.

Natascha Gillen, a graduate student from Mankato State University. Natascha was studying the learning styles of
Hmong primary school students for an ESL Project.

Susan Dicker, a student in the University of Minnesota’s Public Health program. Susan used the Resource Center
to find information about teen pregnancy and prenatal care in the Hmong community.

Stephanie Xiong, a student in the Family Studies program at the University of Saint Thomas. Stephanie used the
Resource Center’s collections for a project pertaining to Hmong marriage customs and traditions.

Katie Bradley, a student from Gustavus Adolphus College. Katie used the Resource Center for her honor’s thesis
which is focused upon the Hmong role in the Secret War in Laos.

Pa Der Vang of the Hmong Women’s Action Team and Zoua Vang of the Hmong Women’s Circle’s Girl Scout
group visited the Resource Center to access video resources pertaining to Hmong culture for group presentations.

Stephen Vang of the University of Wisconsin-Stout and 10 students from the Stout campus visited to learn more
about Hmong culture and Hmong-related resources.

Professor Dia Cha of Saint Cloud State University brought 16 students from her Introduction to Asian American
Studies class to the Resource Center for an activity related to Hmong history and culture. Several students from
Professor Cha’s Anthropology of Hmong Culture class also used the Resource Center’s collections as they
completed term papers over the past month.

About 20 members and staff from the Future Force Americorps program based at the Wilder Foundation in St.
Paul visited to learn about the Hmong Cultural Center, the Resource Center and Hmong culture and history.

Educational orientation activity sessions related to Hmong-related resources and Hmong history and culture are
available for interested groups. To schedule a group visit, please call the Hmong Cultural Center at 651-917-9937.


With the dual goals of promoting scholarship in Hmong Studies and facilitating broader access to its unique
collections, the Hmong Resource Center will award travel grants to visit Saint Paul in the Fall Semester of 2003 to
several Hmong Studies scholars for the purpose of conducting research using the Resource Center’s extensive
collections of Hmong-related books, PhD dissertations, MA Theses, academic and newspaper articles as well as
Hmong language literature related to Hmong culture and history. The Hmong Resource Center collections include
about 300 Hmong-related books and periodicals, 125 Hmong-related theses and dissertations, about 475 Hmong-
related academic journal articles, over 2000 Hmong-related newspaper articles and around 100 videos.

The Hmong Resource Center Travel Grant program will award travel grants of $300 in August 2003 to two (2)
selected students/scholars who reside greater than 500 miles from Saint Paul, MN and travel grants of $150 to two
(2) selected students/scholars residing more than 100 miles from St. Paul in the Midwest region in such states as
Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, or Iowa.

Applicants must provide the following: a 250 word research statement about how access to the Hmong Resource
Center collection would be useful for their research, a letter of support from a professor at their university of
study/research as well as a curriculum vitae or resume. It is suggested that travel grant applicants visit the
Resource Center collection catalog on the Hmong Cultural Center website ( and provide
examples in their research proposal statements of specific books and materials in the collections that would be
useful for their research projects.

Applications should be mailed by July 31, 2003 to Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD, Director, Hmong Resource Center, Hmong
Cultural Center, 995 University Avenue, Suite 214 Saint Paul, MN 55104 for consideration. For further information
please call 651-917-9937 or e-mail


The Hmong Cultural Center is searching for an experienced Paj Ntaub (Hmong Story Cloth) embroiderer to teach
a group of about 5 Hmong children and youth 3 afternoons a week at the cultural center as part of a Youth
Cultural Arts Mentorship program. Persons seeking more information about this paid position may contact Txong
Pao Lee, Executive Director of the center at 651-917-9937.


The Resource Center’s Director, Mark E. Pfeifer, contributed an article titled “Hmong Americans” to an anthology
titled The New Face of Asian Pacific America newly published by Asian Week magazine and the UCLA Asian
American Studies Center Press. The article discusses Hmong adaptation, residential patterns and demography
across the U.S. from the late 1970s to the present. It is included in a broader Southeast Asian Americans chapter.
The new anthology contains articles by several leading Asian-American Studies scholars pertaining to
contemporary Asian-Pacific American populations in the United States. It is also one of the first publications to
include analyses of detailed 2000 census data for a range of Asian-American ethnic origin populations. More
information about ordering this new publication is available at:


Hmong Cultural Center’s 2002 Annual Report has recently been printed. An online abridged version of the report
may be viewed at:

To receive a hard copy of the full 24 page 2002 Annual Report in the mail please contact Hmong Cultural Center
at 651-917-9937 or


Theses and Books

Jett, Anne Darlein. (1995). The Hmong as News: A Case Study of How a Local Press Portrays a Socially
Marginalized Group. M.A. Thesis, University of Minnesota. A somewhat older thesis that examines the portrayal of
Hmong in the headlines, news stories and photos of the Saint Paul Pioneer Press newspaper in the 1981-1991
period. The textual analysis encompasses 255 Pioneer Press news stories. The findings are contextualized within
the broader literature pertaining to the portrayals of ethnic and racial minority groups in the mainstream press.

Academic Articles

Xiao, Zhang. (2003). “Origins and Features of Hmong Culture in China.” Institute of Culture of Minorities, Guishou
Provincial Academy of Social Sciences, Guyang, Guizhou, China. This article briefly describes the history, certain
distinquishing cultural characteristics, and linquistic variation among the peoples classified as “Miao” in China. The
Resource Center thanks Dr. Kao-Ly Yang for informing us of the existence of this interesting article on her
research website at:

Sutton, Donald S. (2003). “Violence and Ethnicity on a Qing Colonial Frontier: Customary and Statutory Law in the
Eighteenth Century Miao Pale.” Modern Asian Studies 37(1): 41-80. This paper assesses the development of
customary and statutory law and its effects as it occurred during the period of Han Chinese colonization in the
remote region of the Eastern Miao (Hmong) in the Hunan/Guizhou region of China in the 18th century. The work
begins with the era of Han Chinese administrative incorporation in the region (which occurred in 2 stages in 1703-
4 and 1727-32) and ends on the eve of the Miao uprising and its suppression in the 1790s.

McMahon, Daniel. (2002). “Identity and Conflict on a Chinese Borderland: Yan Ruyi and the Recruitment of the
Gelao during the 1795-97 Miao Revolt.” Late Imperial China 23(2)(December 2002): 53-86. This essay examines
the circumstances of the Miao (Hmong) revolt in China in the late 1790s and specifically the amorphous nature of
identity on the Miao frontier (Hunan-Guizhou-Sichuan border region) and its deleterious impact on the Han
government’s efforts to suppress the rebellion.

University of Wisconsin-Extension. (2002). “Wisconsin’s Hmong Population: Census 2000 Population and Trends.”
Report prepared by University of Wisconsin Extension and Applied Population Laboratory, Madison, WI, for UW-
Extension, Hmong Educational Needs Assessment, Stevens Point, WI, Dec. 12-13, 2002. This report presents a
numerical analysis of Hmong residential distribution and Hmong population change in Wisconsin counties and
cities from 1990 to 2000. It includes maps of the 2000 Hmong residential distribution across the state of Wisconsin
as well as Chippewa, Dunn, Eau Claire, La Crosse, Dane, Brown, Calumet, Fond Du Lac, Outagamie, Winnebago,
Marathon, Milwaukee, Sheboygan and Manitowoc counties.

Yang, Kou. (2001). “The Hmong in America: Twenty Five Years after the U.S. Secret War in Laos.” Journal of
Asian American Studies. This article provides a concise overview of the achievements of Hmong Americans since
the movement of the first Hmong to the United States in the mid-1970s. The author discusses Hmong educational
and professional achievements, political participation, entrepreneurial success, and self-help initiatives. The work
concludes with a brief overview of the accomplishments of several Hmong pioneers in the educational, political and
professional worlds including Choua Lee, Pa Foua Yang, Joe Bee Xiong, Xoua Thao, Yee Chang Hang, Vang
Hang, Teng Lee and Tou Ger Xiong.

Reznik, Vivian; Cooper, Theresa; MacDonald, Dina; Benador, Nadine and Jacques Lemire. (2001). “Hais Cuaj
Txub Kaum Txub – To Speak of All Things: A Hmong Cross-Cultural Case Study.” Journal of Immigrant Health 3
(1): 23-30. This report describes the conflict between a Hmong immigrant family and the Western medical
establishment over the care of a child with end stage renal disease. The health care providers, social service
agencies and medical center failed to adequately respond to the needs of the family. The work discusses the
subsequent efforts of the medical staff, transcultural nurse, Hmong community health worker and the patient’s
family to design and negotiate a treatment plan that would be acceptable to the family and the health care team.


The Hmong Cultural Center is very pleased to announce that it has recently received a Community Arts grant from
the Metropolitan Regional Arts Council for the youth cultural arts mentorship program. The cultural center thanks
MRAC for its important support of our mission of promoting the personal development of children and youth
through cultural education programming while also providing resources that promote cross-cultural awareness and
understanding among and between Hmong and non-Hmong persons.

Looking for some traditional Hmong culture to enliven your community event this Spring? The Hmong Cultural
Center’s Qeej (Traditional Hmong Music) and Traditional Dance troupes are available to perform for a fee.
Persons interested in scheduling performances may call Meng Vang (Qeej) or Yer Lo (Dance) at the cultural

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Youth Arts Programs are supported by grants from the McKnight Foundation, the
Best Buy Children’s Foundation, the Grotto Foundation, the Metropolitan Regional Arts Council and the
COMPAS/Medtronic Community Arts Program. Operating grants from the Saint Paul Companies Inc. Foundation
and the General Mills Foundation also help to support the youth programs.


The Hmong Cultural Center is currently accepting enrollment for its citizenship and functional English classes.
There are openings in the English language Citizenship classes offered Monday through Thursday from 10:00 AM
to 12 Noon, the Hmong language Citizenship classes held Tuesday through Thursday 1:00-4:00 P.M. and the
English Language Citizenship Classes held Monday through Thursday from 4:30 to 6:30 P.M. For more
information call MayTong Chang at the cultural center (651-917-9937).

Need information about the citizenship process, study guides or application forms? Extensive citizenship-related
information is available on the Hmong Cultural Center website at The citizenship section of
the website includes examples of typical citizenship interview questions, as well as 100 sample citizenship exam
questions in both the English and Hmong languages. Up-to-date information is also provided about eligibility and
requirements pertaining to the Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act of 2000.

The Hmong Cultural Center’s Citizenship and Functional English Program is a member of the federally and state
funded Saint Paul Community Literacy Consortium (SPCLC). The cultural center’s citizenship program for adult
refugees is also supported by a grant from the New Americans Collaborative of the Wilder Foundation

Special quick update of interest to the Hmong Studies and Asian American Studies Research Community

The U.S. census has begun releasing detailed socioeconomic, demographic, and educational 2000 census data
for Hmong and other Asian-Pacific Islander ethnic groups (Summary File 4). This is the first time in more than 10
years that updated data on these variables has been available for specific Asian-origin ethnic groups.

Variables in this release include Labor Force Status, Occupational and Industry Distribution, Median Household
Income, Median Family Income, Poverty Status, Educational Attainment and Income Distribution. Data breakdowns
for most of these variables are available by gender and may be tabulated by geographic area (census tract,
municipality, county, state, etc.)

Of particular interest to Hmong Studies scholars, the detailed Summary File 4 dataset was released earlier this
week for Hmong and other ethnic groups in Wisconsin with other states to come in the weeks to follow. The data
may be accessed at in the American Factfinder section.

Those persons with questions about accessing this data may contact Mark Pfeifer at the Hmong Resource Center.


Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Director, Hmong Resource Center, Hmong Cultural Center

995 University Avenue, Suite 214

Saint Paul, MN 55104-4796

Phone: 651-917-9937

Fax: 651-917-9978 E-mail: Internet: